CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. Remember me? Back Institutional Login Please choose from an option shown below. Need help logging in? Click here. Don't have access? View purchasing options. Show Hide Page Numbers. Copy to Clipboard. Looks like you do not have access to this content. Click here for free trial login. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance.
The principal progestational hormone of the body, secreted by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta. Its chief function is to prepare the uterus for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum. It acts as an antiovulatory agent when administered on days of the menstrual cycle. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape and function of the protein.
It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppresive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action. DSM III-R a substancespecific organic brain syndrome that follows the cessation of use or reduction in intake of a psychoactive substance that had been regularly used to induce a state of intoxication.
All too often, patients who conduct their own research are overwhelmed by the difficulty in finding and organizing information. The purpose of the following chapters is to provide you an organized and structured format to help you find additional information resources on tuberculosis. In Part II, as in Part I, our objective is not to interpret the latest advances on tuberculosis or render an opinion.
Rather, our goal is to give you access to original research and to increase your awareness of sources you may not have already considered. In this way, you will come across the advanced materials often referred to in pamphlets, books, or other general works. Once again, some of this material is technical in nature, so consultation with a professional familiar with tuberculosis is suggested.
Broadly speaking, there are two types of studies. The first are peer reviewed. Generally, the content of these studies has been reviewed by scientists or physicians. Peer-reviewed studies are typically published in scientific journals and are usually available at medical libraries. The second type of studies is non-peer reviewed. These works include summary articles that do not use or report scientific results. These often appear in the popular press, newsletters, or similar periodicals.
In this chapter, we will show you how to locate peer-reviewed references and studies on tuberculosis. We will begin by discussing research that has been summarized and is free to view by the public via the Internet. We then show you how to generate a bibliography on tuberculosis and teach you how to keep current on new studies as they are published or undertaken by the scientific community. To limit your investigation to research studies and tuberculosis, you will need to use the advanced search options.
Summary: This newsletter provides healthcare professionals information on tuberculosis TB treatment. It presents ten basics on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TB and information on countries and areas with an estimated or reported high incidence of TB, a therapy timeline for previously untreated TB patients with drug-susceptible active disease, medications used in the treatment of TB, recommended antituberculosis treatment regimens for HIV-infected persons with drug-susceptible TB disease, and the use of antituberculosis medications in special situations, such as pregnancy, TB meningitis, and renal failure.
The newsletter lists contact information for resources in New York City providing TB-related services. Summary: This reprint discusses the recent changes in health care from individual to managed care for persons with tuberculosis TB , the challenges facing this new method of health services delivery, and it provides a model contract for patients with TB and managed care organizations.
It explains the purpose of the model contract between TB Studies 71 patients and the managed care organizations, and how these contracts can help to overcome the aforementioned challenges. The reprint discusses the ten sections of the model managed care contracts and summarizes the guiding principles for the management of persons with TB or TB infections. The reprint defines a number of terms related to managed care for TB patients. The reprint makes recommendations about how to design each section of the model contract to meet the needs of the provider and the TB patient.
This paper discusses the following topics: treatment of TB, drugs in current use, potentially effective drugs, initial treatment regimens, monitoring adverse reactions, evaluation of response to treatment, management of patients whose treatment has failed or who have relapsed, management of patients who have drug-resistant disease, TB in children and adolescents, special considerations in treatment, treatment of TB infection, persons for whom preventive therapy is recommended, screening procedures, administration of isoniazid preventive therapy, monitoring preventive therapy, and alternative forms of TB prevention.
Summary: This article reports on a state survey of tuberculosis TB laws, based on an examination of both TB-specific statutes and more general communicable disease statutes. The survey found that many statutes still in force were enacted at the turn of the century or in the early to mids, before the development of modern concepts of 72 Tuberculosis constitutional law and the concept of the need to protect public health.
The article also recommends the development of an individualized treatment plan for all persons diagnosed with the disease, the balancing of constitutional rights against public health risk, the maintainence of confidentiality and antidiscrimination, and the bringing of communicable disease statutes into conformity with the American With Disabilities Act ADA.
Summary: The re-emergence of the tuberculosis TB epidemic with its associated medical and legal problems, especially in relation to AIDS, is examined in this journal article. TB, its treatment, and the problem of incomplete treatment are described. The article suggests that social reform is required to control TB, including the restructuring of the public health and social service systems.
The interdependent reforms include public funding for TB education, emphasizing Directly Observed Therapy DOT to use in fighting incomplete treatment, funding research in diagnostics and treatments of TB, and developing guidelines for the legal issues involved. These legal concerns include civil rights with respect to state-mandated quarantine, confidentiality, and employment practices where infection control, not discrimination, prevents disease. Active tuberculosis makes its appearance in one of two ways: a previous infection resurfaces, or a fresh infection is transmitted by another infected individual.
Although PWA's experience more serious side effects, drugs are very effective against the tuberculosis bacterium. The factsheet also outlines the stages of TB and suggests medications for each stage. A short bibliography is appended. It uses a question-and-answer format to address what TB is, how many people are infected worldwide, the symptoms of TB, its treatments, incubation period, and what can be done by community organizations.
Summary: This reprint of a journal article analyzes an outbreak of tuberculosis TB that took place among residents of a housing facility for persons with HIV infection. As background information, the article points out that TB can develop from either a reactivation of a latent infection or from a primary infection. It then reviews the outbreak, which took place between December and April , during which time 12 cases of TB were diagnosed.
Two patients under treatment for TB had been admitted in the previous six months. Organisms isolated from 11 culture-positive residents had similar patterns, but isolates from the two patients treated prior to the outbreak showed different strains. The article says that this implicates the first of the 12 patients to come down with TB as the source of the outbreak. It concludes that newly acquired TB infection in HIV-positive patients can spread readily and progress rapidly to active disease. Summary: This report discusses managing and preventing tuberculosis TB in facilities that provide long-term care for the elderly.
It provides a brief epidemiological history of TB among elderly people in the United States, including those in nursing homes. General guidelines for prevention and control of TB in the areas of surveillance, containment, assessment, and education are provided.
Recommendations for surveillance include a tuberculin skin testing program for all new residents and employees to detect TB infection and active TB, case reporting, and encouraging HIV counseling and testing. Containment recommendations include information about appropriate isolation and treatment of the elderly resident, and an overview of contact investigations for residents and staff and appropriate preventive therapy.
A record-keeping system that includes specific data for annual review and assessment is recommended. The report concludes with the role of the local health department in the management and prevention of TB in long-term care facilities for the elderly. June Summary: This journal article provides health professionals with information on the diagnosis and management of spinal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the spine is still a common disease in some endemic regions and is returning to developed countries.
The diagnosis is usually made with a high index of suspicion in endemic areas in the presence of pain and appropriate clinical symptoms and signs of a systemic infection. Typical plain radiographic changes include destruction of two adjacent vertebral bodies, narrowing of the intervening disk, scalloping of the anterior vertebrae, and a fusiform paravertebral abscess shadow.
The development of the polymerase chain reaction technique and magnetic resonance imaging MRI in the past decade has greatly improved diagnostic accuracy. MRI is useful in diagnosing early or multicentric lesions before plain radiographic changes become obvious. The aims of treatment in spinal tuberculosis are eradication of the infection, preservation or restoration of neurologic integrity, and prevention or correction of spinal deformity.
Combination chemotherapy remains the most important and effective treatment, whereas surgical intervention Studies 75 can help in achieving earlier fusion and less late deformity. Early results of spinal instrumentation with or without fusion appear to be promising in further enhancing good outcome. November Summary: This article describes the first reported case that fulfills the diagnostic criteria for primary pancreatic tuberculosis. After a detailed case presentation, the authors discuss extrapulmonary tuberculosis in general, the clinical presentation, and the diagnostic testing required to determine pancreatic tuberculosis.
They also briefly review the literature covering this condition. Diagnostic tests considered include radiographic studies, ultrasound, CT guided needle aspiration of pancreatic masses, and exploratory laparotomy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Contact: Available from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Website: www. Summary: Tuberculosis of the kidney and urinary tract is, like other forms of the disease, caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
This article reviews the clinical features of classical renal kidney tuberculosis, tuberculous interstitial nephritis, tuberculosis and glomerular disease, end stage renal disease ESRD caused by tuberculosis, tuberculosis developing in patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, tuberculosis in transplant patients, genital tuberculosis, and hypercalcemia in dialysis patients.
The authors also discuss laboratory diagnosis, pathology, the role of immunodeficiency in genitourinary tuberculosis, and treatment options. In developed nations, tuberculosis is relatively uncommon, but the risk of acquiring the disease is increased in immunosuppressed individuals, including patients on dialysis and recipients of kidney transplants. The signs and symptoms of renal tuberculosis mimic those of other infections of the kidney, so diagnostic awareness may prevent unnecessary morbidity illness or complications.
Tuberculosis may involve the kidney as part of generalized infection throughout the body or as localized genitourinary disease. The morphology shape and appearance of the lesions depends on the site of infection, the virulence of the organism, and the immune 76 Tuberculosis status of the patient. Modern short course antituberculosis drug regimens are effective in all forms of tuberculosis. However, special considerations apply to the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with impaired renal kidney function, as some drugs may not be metabolized properly.
Surgical intervention is indicated in cases of advanced unilateral involving one kidney disease complicated by pain or hemorrhage and for bladder augmentation. December Contact: Available from Cliggott Publishing Company. Summary: Tuberculosis of the urinary tract is rare enough to justify the selective use of tuberculosis cultures when evaluating hematuria.
Nonpulmonary not in the lungs tuberculosis accounts for only about 2 percent of diagnosed cases of tuberculosis. This brief article, one from a regular column that answers clinical questions, addresses the need to consider tuberculosis when evaluating a patient with hematuria blood in the urine. The author recommends that physicians consider obtaining tuberculosis urine cultures for patients who are at increased risk for genitourinary tuberculosis.
Such patients include immunocompromised persons and those with active pulmonary tuberculosis or a history of tuberculosis. A history of travel in or immigration from an area of high tuberculosis activity should also raise the index of suspicion. Readers are also encouraged to seek the advice of an infectious diseases consultant. May Contact: Available from Appleton and Lange.
Box 86, Congers, NY Summary: Patients with end-stage renal disease ESRD are considered moderately immunocompromised and are susceptible to mycobacterial infection, including tuberculosis. This article explores the incidence of tuberculosis, organ involvement, diagnostic parameters, and response to tuberculosis treatment in the hemodialysis population.
Based on data from 3 years, the incidence of tuberculosis at the authors hemodialysis unit is 2 percent 23 of patients. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in these patients is difficult, and biopsy, an invasive procedure, was required for diagnosis in 14 cases in this study. Extrapulmonary involvement in organs other than the lungs was a frequent finding in this population. Studies 77 The authors stress that, in spite of treatment, the high mortality rate due to this disease underlines tuberculosis as a persistent and significant problem that cannot be underestimated for hemodialysis patients.
Because of this, all possible diagnostic methods need to be used in this group, including RT-PCR studies and tissue biopsy. Government supports a variety of research studies relating to tuberculosis and associated conditions. You can perform targeted searches by various criteria including geography, date, as well as topics related to tuberculosis and related conditions.
As opposed to clinical trial research using patients, many federally-funded studies use animals or simulated models to explore tuberculosis and related conditions. In some cases, therefore, it may be difficult to understand how some basic or fundamental research could eventually translate into medical practice. The current tool to diagnose infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test TST. The recent achievements in the field of bacterial genomics enable us to undertake a new approach to formulate a M.
Comparative genomic analyses show that the M. Thus, we can tailor a new, M. Our specific aims are 1 Identification of candidate antigens. Gene selection will be based on published results of comparative genomic analyses, BLAST protein homology searches, and Southern blot analyses. Antigens will be selected that induce skin test reactions in tuberculous guinea pigs but not in control animals sensitized with M. Antigens selected in guinea pig studies will be evaluated for the ability to induce in vitro lymphoproliferation and cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC of M.
Antigens selected in the proposed Phase I studies will be used to formulate a multi-antigen tuberculin to be taken to human clinical trials during Phase II work. Proposed Commercial Application: 2. In a recent National Intelligence Estimate, the Central Intelligence Agency singled out drug-resistant TB-and especially its incidence among immigrants-as a potential threat to national security. This new diagnostic is desperately needed. Short term markets will be in developing countries where the test will replace the current skin test as an adjunct diagnostic.
Canaday, M. Research training will be provided by W. Henry Boom, M. Harding, M. The research proposal which will provide the focus for Dr. Canaday's training is outlined below. Most healthy people do not develop clinical tuberculosis. Instead, cellular immune responses become activated and are able to successfully control the active infection.
T cells play a crucial role in regulating the cellular immune response. The Aims are: Aim 1. Aim 2. To determine the mechanism s used by M. Aim 3. Chaisson, M. The applicant completed subspecialty training in infectious diseases and clinical epidemiology in Since that time, he has built a successful and productive research program within the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service, a multidisciplinary clinical care enterprise for adults with HIV infection.
In addition, he has organized and led the clinical and research efforts of the Baltimore City Health Department Tuberculosis Clinic, and has undertaken field trials in HIV-related tuberculosis in Haiti and South Africa. In Dr. Chaisson was promoted to Professor and began a refocusing of his academic activities and commitments.
This application is intended to support this effort. Chaisson has relinquished the directorship of the AIDS Service and has appointed a replacement director of the Tuberculosis Clinic in order to devote his full attention to clinical research in tuberculosis and HIV infection. Chaisson has founded the Johns Hopkins University Center for Tuberculosis Research, an interdivisional, multidisciplinary program dedicated to improving global tuberculosis control through innovations in diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
The centerpiece of this initiative is field trial comparing alternative tuberculosis control strategies in communities within high-incidence countries, funded under the US Agency for International Development's Infectious Disease Initiative. This trial will be conducted in several countries and will randomly assign communities to one of three tuberculosis control strategies: i directly observed therapy DOT for active cases; ii DOT plus screening of household contacts for active disease; and iii DOT plus screening and preventive therapy for household contacts.
This trial will provide important insight into effective strategies for global tuberculosis control. The applicant is also Principal Investigator of the Baltimore Tuberculosis Trials Consortium site, and a funded investigator in other studies of tuberculosis epidemiology and control. With support under this award, he will develop an integrate program in tuberculosis research utilizing the clinical and laboratory resources of the Baltimore Tuberculosis Clinic, the Johns Hopkins University and sites in developing countries with high tuberculosis incidence.
Moreover, he will serve as mentor to junior faculty in infectious diseases and related fields who are beginning academic careers in patient-oriented research. A mentoring program organized to enhance professional development and independent scholarly activity will be undertaken with two recent faculty recruits. An award under this program will substantially enhance the research and mentoring capabilities of the applicant, and will contribute to the generation of new knowledge essential for the control of tuberculosis worldwide.
With the tuberculosis epidemic came the recognition that this disease was becoming increasingly concentrated in defined segments of the overall population. Though total case rates are falling again, groups in the US at significantly higher risk for tuberculosis than the general population exist. It is unknown whether the current recommendations for the control of tuberculosis in the US general population are as effective for these groups.
To address this issue, a desktop Computer based mathematical model has been developed to simultaneously project tuberculosis cases and deaths over a l 0 year period using the best available epidemiological data. By adapting this model for US groups at increased risk for tuberculosis, this project will evaluate tuberculosis control strategies for four high risk groups. The groups are persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus, health care workers, immigrants, and the homeless. For each group, a database of inputs based on the epidemiology of tuberculosis within that group will be created.
These databases will draw on the published literature and available government information such as that provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised report of verified case of tuberculosis. The following tuberculosis control strategies will be evaluated singly and in combinations: increased coverage and improved efficacy of preventive therapy, increased coverage and improved efficacy of treatment, increased effectiveness of contact tracing, and the introduction of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination.
The robustness of the model results will be assessed in sensitivity analyses by simultaneously varying all inputs using Latin hypercube sampling. The combination of mathematical modeling and epidemiology provides the most complete evaluation of TB control measures among these high risk groups to date, and forms a basis for improving approaches to control this epidemic among these populations. While these interactions occur in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, they are only partially efficacious: the human immune system is unable to completely resolve infection with M.
The goal of this project is to define the mechanism of inhibition of class II antigen present in human macrophages infected with M. We have found that M. This suggests that M. We will further characterize the decreased surface expression of class II by determining whether it is directly related to the number of intracellular M. We will also further characterize the functional effects of M. We anticipate that our results will provide new information on the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, and may identify alternative means of delivering M.
Julio C. Delgado, MD, for a career as an independent investigator in infectious Studies 83 diseases with a special emphasis on the genetic and immunological mechanisms associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis infection. The applicant proposes a 5-year training and research program that will prospectively identify novel host factors that predispose individuals to develop pulmonary tuberculosis in a population from Cambodia and characterize the events associated with the anergic state induced by tuberculosis infection in the intact human host. In Specific Aim 1, he will test the hypothesis that HLA molecules are functionally associated with tuberculosis progression and differential immune response to PPD and whether polymorphisms of the promoter region of certain cytokines are associated with impaired immune response against tuberculosis infection.
In Specific Aim 2 and 3, he will characterize immunological and chromatin structural mechanisms associated with anergy to PPD in a cohort of tuberculosis patients from Cambodia with persistent and specific lack of response to PPD. Tuberculosis infection and pathogenesis are the result of a balance between the virulence of a particular invading organism and the host immune response.
Susceptibility to tuberculosis in human populations is likely to be due to a complex interaction between several genetic, immunological and environmental factors. The experiments proposed in this application would attempt to identify host genetic factors and unveil abnormal immunological mechanisms leading to increase risk of clinical tuberculosis disease.
It is anticipated that these results will be useful in the development of genetic and immune therapeutic strategies to combat tuberculosis. As a result of studies supported by AI, our understanding of the interaction between human T cells and macrophages in response to M. Tuberculosis has increased substantially during the last five years. First, M. Tuberculosis infected macrophages, fitting into a Th-1 like pattern. This model postulates that there is a defined sequence of T cell subset recruitment and that the antigen processing mechanisms used by M.
In addition, the model postulates that both secretion of macrophage activating cytokines and CTL effector function are necessary for protective immune responses to M. There are three specific aims to test the postulates of this model: 1. To further characterize a KD M. To characterize the antigen processing pathways of M. These studies will provide insight into the regulation of human T cell subsets involved in protective immunity to M.
As the effectiveness of cellular immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis determines whether infection evolves into clinical disease, a better understanding of the immune response and the genes that govern it will Studies 85 facilitate a more rational approach to development and use of vaccines, drugs, and biological therapy.
An aerosol route of inoculation will be used to infect intact mice that are either inherently resistant or susceptible to tuberculosis. The local immune response in the lung will be compared to the systemic response in the spleen using a variety of techniques including the quantitation of T cell subsets, intracellular cytokines staining, and RNAse protection assays in order to define immunological parameters that indicate a protective immune response.
Other investigations will ascertain which genetic loci are critical for disease resistance. With this insight, these techniques will be applied to interventional models to determine how different treatment strategies modify the immune response during primary infection in the case of vaccines and biological treatments or after subsequent rechallenge in the case of chemotherapy.
The specific aims are as follows: Aim 1. Characterize the immunological differences between mouse strains that are either resistant or susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after aerosol inoculation. Determine the genetic derangements that correlate with susceptibility and resistance. Identify how the immune response to tuberculosis changes as a consequence of therapeutic interventions in an animal model. Aim 4. All M. The loss of 86 Tuberculosis oxyR has a dual significance for M.
First, this surprising phenomenon reflects the complexity of host-parasite interactions and its continuing analyses are expected to reveal strategies used by M. Second, the loss of oxyR and the associated dysfunction of oxidative stress responses most likely contribute to the exceptional sensitivity of M. The goals of this proposal are: i to delineate the effects of the loss of oxyR on M. This will be accomplished by identifying genes and functions affected by the loss of oxyR, analyzing alternative modes of their regulation, and characterizing M.
This will be examined by complementation of the defect in M. In addition to conventional analyses of M. These experiments will delineate the effects that the loss of oxyR has on host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis. The proposed studies are expected to improve understanding of the elusive virulence attributes of M. A better understanding of the immune response to tuberculosis may lead to the development of adjunctive therapy to modulate host defenses and improve outcome.
To test this hypothesis, we will use the powerful research tool of bronchoalveolar lavage BAL to obtain cells from tuberculosis-involved and -uninvolved lung segments for cytokine assessment. We will assess individual cells and cell types by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and three-color flow cytometry for intracellular cytokines.
We will determine the optimum method for characterizing the Th1 response in the lung. We will thus be able to determine if the Th1 response truly controls the host response to M. A TB epidemic is becoming more dangerous because of the emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and the lack of effective new drugs. MCB belongs to a new class of chemical compounds, has low toxicity in mice and is effective against strains of tuberculosis resistant to the known anti-tuberculosis agents. The specific aims of this project include:1 evaluation of the antituberculosis activity of MCB in standard, well-characterized in vitro and in vivo models and, 2 compare it to other regimens of treatment.
Previous studies indicate that MCB has potent specific activity against M. Further study of MCB will facilitate commercialization of this 88 Tuberculosis novel class of compounds for treatment of tuberculosis. Proposed Commercial Application: Tuberculosis claims three million lives a year world-wide and reached epidemic proportions in the US, with outbreaks of drug-resistent strains in several cities. The compound under investigation. Mycobactocid, has high specific activity against M. The specific goal of this project is to develop preclinical data to facilitate evaluation in human clinical trials and ultimately lead to a commercial product.
The re-emergence of tuberculosis has become one of our most important public health problems. In the US, co-infection with M. The pathogenicity of M. However, despite the obligate intracellular location of M. Significant abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract of AIDS patients have been demonstrated and have been shown to interfere with drug absorption. By performing bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage BAL in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and measuring drug levels using highly specific and sensitive chromatographic techniques HPLC , the intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of these drugs will be defined and compared in HIVinfected and HIV-uninfected men and women.
Alveolar cell separation using the FACSTAR cell sorter, determination of drug concentrations in Studies 89 peripheral blood mononuclear cells after Ficoll-Hypaque separation, trilobar lavage and the determination of concentrations of albumin in ELF have been added to the original proposal. The PI points out that the ability of M. Many bacteria use alternate sigma factors for RNA polymerase to upregulate response genes specific for a needed adaptation.
Not only does M. In vitro i. In vivo, its expression increases fold upon entry into murine macrophages. Hence, the PI hypothesizes that the M. In this application, the PI proposes to determine i the in vitro and in vivo phenotypes of an M. The PI anticipates that understanding how M. Worldwide, tuberculosis is the largest cause of death from a single infectious disease and although the PIs have long championed BCG as a vaccine against tuberculosis, in this competitive renewal application, they propose to develop effective and safe live attenuated tuberculosis vaccines by generating defined mutations in the M.
The PIs have developed a novel approach for mutagenizing or deleting biosynthetic genes in M. Although BCG is the most widely used vaccine in the world, the ability to generate defined mutations will now allow the PIs to develop auxotrophic vaccines that are unable to cause disease, even in immunodeficient hosts. Secondly, the PIs propose to gain understanding of fundamental immunological mechanisms of protection against M. Thirdly, the PIs propose a novel approach to identify protective antigens and open reading frames of any pathogen, which will facilitate development of recombinant BCG or attenuated M.
Analysis of the M. Preliminary evidence indicates that the M. It has been shown that both the M. More importantly, commercial anti-fungal drugs that are known inhibitors of sterol synthesis specifically oxidosqualene cyclase and lanosterol 14a-demethylase effectively inhibit the growth of M.
It is hypothesized that M. Therefore, the specific aims of this proposal are to: 1 identify and characterize cyclic isoprenoid compounds in M. This search gives you access to full-text articles. PubMed Central aims to become a world-class library of the digital age. Many journals already have online publishing operations, and there is a growing tendency to publish material online only, to the exclusion of print. Hirsch, Jerrold J. Nau, Patrick Guilfoile, Geoffrey L. Chupp, Jeffrey S. Berman, Sue J.
Kim, Hardy Kornfeld, and Richard A. Wells, and Arthur J. Wittenberg, Jonathan B. Wittenberg, Yannick Ouellet, Denis L. Kubin, M. Havelkova, I. Hyncicova, Z. Svecova, J. Kaustova, K. Kremer, and D. Sousa, Julia I. Salem, Francis K. Lee, Maria C. Vercosa, Philippe Cruaud, Barry R. Bloom, Philippe H.
Lagrange, and Hugo L. Gie, Donald A. Enarson, Nulda Beyers, Paul D. Mazzaccaro, JoAnne L. Flynn, Peter F. Bloom, Robert L. Manabe, Beatrice J. Saviola, Li Sun, John R. Murphy, and William R. Yuen, David Leslie, and Peter J. Mangla, W. David Nes, and Michael R. Rashed, Glenn P. Morlock, Charles L. Woodley, O. El Shanawy, and Robert C. Graviss, Anees Siddiqui, and James M. Scott, Henry F. Chambers, JoAnne L. Flynn, Israel F. Charo, and Joel D.
Bergmann, William E. Keating, and Gail L. Woods, John S. Landowski, Henry P. Godfrey, Stuart I. Gennaro, Fred H. Moy, Scott A. Kremer, D. Frothingham, W. Haas, P. Hermans, C. Martin, P. Palittapongarnpim, B. Plikaytis, L. Riley, M. Yakrus, J. Musser, and J. Studies 97 Davies, O. Billington, T. McHugh, D. Mitchison, and S. Ruiz, F. Zerolo, and M. Barlow, Deborah M. Gascoyne-Binzi, Stephen H. McAdam, Barry R. Bloom, Graham F. Hatfull, and William R.
Jacobs, Jr. Podust, Thomas L. Poulos, and Michael R. El-Hajj, Salvatore A.
Edwards, L. Metherell, M. Yates, and N. Hellyer, L. This primer is designed to meet that void and serve as a supplemental reading for this important and timely topic. This is the only book of its kind that provides a broad introduction and demonstration of the application of health systems thinking.
Personal Health: A Population Perspective will engage your students in understanding relevant personal health issues, set within a broader population health framework. Unlike other Personal Health texts, this book will combine information about individual health, including topics of great interest and relevance to college-aged students, as well as a discussion of the context of community and global health to which each individual is inextricably linked. Students will learn not only how personal choices affect their own health, but that of their family, community and the world around them.
Claudia F. Designed for undergraduate instruction across a range of majors or concentrations in health science, health education, public health, and health administration, as well as clinical health disciplines including nursing, allied health, and health professions, this new first edition will introduce your students to the basics of health communication. Health Communication: Strategies and Skills for a New Era provides a practical process model for developing a health communication intervention.
The book also explores exposure to media and how it shapes our conceptions of health and illness. Using a community-based health communication approach, the book covers a broad base of information from communication and health behavior theory, community-based program planning, and social marketing constructs to provide students with the keys to develop effective and culturally appropriate health communication. Ray M. Mathematical concepts and their applications are fundamental to epidemiology.
However, many public health students lack adequate quantitative background and find themselves struggling with simple math such as converting fractions to decimals; filling in 2 by 2 tables; reading story problems; understanding the difference between ratios, proportions, and rates; and connecting selected math concepts to epidemiologic study designs. Other students have been taught the math principles that deal with epidemiology, but did not learn how to apply these mathematical tools to research study designs. As the first of its kind, this book reviews fundamental math concepts and procedures for epidemiology.
Students will learn how to connect the math principles and procedures to the epidemiologic study designs. They will also will gain opportunities to apply the math principles to real-life problems and case studies. Health promotion, education, and prevention programs ultimately focus on changing health behavior. Essentials of Health Behavior: Social and Behavioral Theory in Public Health, Third Edition provides the groundwork for understanding, assessing, and effectively applying theories of human behavior within the practice of public health.
In clear and accessible language, this text provides the student with a background of the kinds of social and behavioral theories that guide our understanding of health related behavior and form the background for health promotion and prevention efforts. Filled with real life examples and profiles, the text explores some of the ways in which these theories and approaches are used in applied health promotion efforts. Thomas P. This book was written with the belief that everyone globally has the right to a safe and healthy workplace.
An 8-year old carrying bricks in the mid-day sun in Nepal, a pharmaceutical business executive on assignment in Bangladesh, or a mother polishing stone in her home in Tanzania; each has a fundamental right to a workplace free from risk of injury, illness, and death. Global Occupational Safety and Health Management Handbook is a broad presentation and discussion of the issues and obstacles facing the Occupational Safety and Health OSH profession today in providing safe workplaces globally. Readers can use this book to find resources to assist in the development of their programs and to become informed about the basic structures of international OSH development and governance.
Readers can also rely on this book to become more aware of global OSH issues and problems that they may be personally or professionally willing and able to help address. Seasoned OSH professionals can expect to learn about new ways to look at complicated and controversial topics. Young professionals and students can read this book to better understand the important global OSH interrelationships and challenges of the future. Mental health has always been a low priority worldwide.
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Notwithstanding astonishing medical advancements in treatments for physical illnesses, mental disorder continues to have a startlingly high mortality rate. However, despite its widespread neglect, there is now an emerging international imperative to improve global mental health and wellbeing. Although much broader in focus than the previous eight Millennium Development Goals MDGs , the need for worldwide improvement in mental health has finally been recognised.
This Handbook addresses the new UN agenda in the context of mental health and sustainable development, examining its implications for national and international policy-makers, decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies. Together, they explore why a commitment to investing in mental health for the fulfilment of SDG3 ought to be an absolute global priority.
This volume critically evaluates how the global health industry has evolved and how the interests of diverse political and economic stakeholders are shaping the context of a rapidly changing institutional landscape. It provides an authoritative overview for students, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers working in or concerned with the politics of public health around the globe.
Environmental health is an area with significant developments and noteworthy challenges that expand into various disciplines: medicine and public health, sociology and communications, technology, policymaking, and legislation. Due to the massive amount of health-related issues, additional literature involving environmental health is required to improve the wellbeing of citizens worldwide. Environmental Exposures and Human Health Challenges provides interdisciplinary insights into concepts and theories related to environmental exposures and human health impacts via the air, water, soil, heavy metal exposure, and other chemical toxins.
The book also addresses inequalities and environmental injustices in relation to environmental exposures and health impacts. Covering topics such as health policies, pollution effects, and heavy metal exposure, this publication is designed for public health professionals, preventive medicine specialists, clinicians, data scientists, environmentalists, academicians, practitioners, researchers, and students.
Many factors have changed interactions between people, animals, and our environment including the emergence and reemergence of diseases such as swine flu, rabies, and diphtheria. By practicing the concept of one health, which relates the close interactions between people, animals, and our environment to overall health, a solution for global wellbeing can be found.
Global Applications of One Health Practice and Care provides in-depth research on the concept of one health and the ability to achieve universal health by connecting human health with animal health and a safe environment. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as holism health, drug resistance, and parasitic zoonoses, this book is ideally designed for policy planners, program managers, public health practitioners, animal health specialists, environmentalists, researchers, and academicians seeking current research on achieving better public health outcomes. The legitimacy of any national health system depends on how it serves the interest of the poorest and most vulnerable people.
As such, a commitment to equity should be at the heart of human rights discussions regarding universal health coverage. Human Rights, Public Values, and Leadership in Healthcare Policy is an essential reference source on the importance of access to timely, quality, and affordable healthcare, and how overt or implicit discrimination in the delivery of health services violates fundamental human rights and can have serious health consequences.
This publication covers current health-policy debates and reforms that focus on extending universal health coverage, decreasing the growth of costs through improved efficiency, and expanding prevention and wellness of programs. Industry professionals, government officials, and the general public often agree that the modern healthcare system is in need of an overhaul.
With many organizations concerned with the long-term care of patients, new strategies, practices, and organizational tools must be developed to optimize the current healthcare system. Healthcare Policy and Reform: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a comprehensive source of academic material on the importance of policy and policy reform initiatives in modern healthcare systems.
Highlighting a range of topics such as public health, effective care delivery, and health information systems, this multi-volume book is designed for medical practitioners, medical administrators, professionals, academicians, and researchers interested in all aspects of healthcare policy and reform.
Daniel B. Cynthia D. Play and playfulness for public health and wellbeing. Frederick J. Essentials of Health Justice examines the social and structural determinants of health, systems of care for underserved populations, health equity, social justice and health policy.
This unique text explores health disparities in the United States and their implications from the perspective of health care administration. The book begins with a broad overview of health disparities including definitions from local, state, and federal legislation, as well as alternative definitions. The authors examine current and past frameworks of analysis regarding the causes of disparities and provide a statistical overview of death rates and their implications for health care administrators.
Robert H. Using a straightforward, non-technical approach, the author has included many examples and illustrations of environmental health issues. Perfect for the beginning student as well as the experienced health professional, each chapter concludes with study questions and exercises to engage the reader in further study.
Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections. Sunit K. Richard D. Curtis P. Drawing from the perspectives of a variety of disciplines, this innovative text is unlike any others of its kind. Organized into three sections, this unique text first explores the current and historical issues with the U. It then reviews the political processes that influence planning in various healthcare settings; presents the accepted methods of economic and financial analysis; and addresses the ethical and other value considerations that must enter into the health policy process.
Finally, it takes a look at the roles, skills, and leadership that health professionals can bring to the policy making process in their local and national communities. Each new print copy of Public Health , Third Edition also includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access that unlocks a complete eBook, Study Center, homework and Assessment Center, and a dashboard that reports actionable data.
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From clean drinking water, to seat belts, to immunizations, the impact of public health on every individual is undeniable. For undergraduates, an understanding of the foundations of public health is an essential step toward becoming an educated citizen. Public Health Improving Community Health, Third Edition provides a big-picture, population perspective on the determinants of health and disease and the tools available to protect and promote health. Now with a greater emphasis on community involvement and providing community based-services, the third edition examines the full range of options for intervention including use of the healthcare system, the public health system, and society-wide systems such as laws and taxation.
Introduction to Health Behavior Theory, Third Edition is designed to provide students with an easy to understand, interesting, and engaging introduction to the theoretical basis of health education. Written with the undergraduate in mind, the text uses comprehensive and accessible explanations to help students understand what theory is, how theories are developed, and what factors influence health behavior theory.
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This comprehensive handbook provides an authoritative source of information on global water and health, suitable for interdisciplinary teaching for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers both developing and developed country concerns. It is organized into sections covering: hazards including disease, chemicals and other contaminants ; exposure; interventions; intervention implementation; distal influences; policies and their implementation; investigative tools; and historic cases.
It offers 71 analytical and engaging chapters, each representing a session of teaching or graduate seminar. Written by a team of expert authors from around the world, many of whom are actively teaching the subject, the book provides a thorough and balanced overview of current knowledge, issues and relevant debates, integrating information from the environmental, health and social sciences. Vassilios E. Scientific evidence from different countries around the globe shows that those with low or inadequate health-related knowledge and skills include all ages, social, and economic backgrounds.
The consequences of this inadequacy simultaneously affect individuals, healthcare systems, and society in many ways, such as healthcare quality and cost. Research on health literacy can provide insight on how to improve the communication of health issues, raise awareness, and promote the lifelong learning of patients and healthcare professionals. Optimizing Health Literacy for Improved Clinical Practices examines the latest advances in providing and helping patients and medical professionals to understand basic health information and the services that are most appropriate.
Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as patient engagement, mobile health, and health communication, this book is geared towards medical professionals, hospital adminstrators, healthcare providers, academicians, and researchers in the field. What are the implications of this for healthcare provision? Drawing on the findings of an extensive research project, this book addresses urgent challenges and debates in trans health. It interweaves patient voices with social theory and autobiography, offering an innovative look at how shifting language, patient mistrust, waiting lists and professional power shape clinical encounters, and exploring what a better future might look like for trans patients.
Introduction to Global Health. Includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access. Kathryn H. The third edition of Introduction to Global Health has been significantly expanded to present the full spectrum of topics that are now included as part of the global health agenda, including global health dynamics, the links between the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs and global health priorities, the socioeconomic and environmental determinants of health, the connections between health and human rights, and the funding and implementation of global public health initiatives.
Global health is a dynamic multidisciplinary field that uses a diversity of interventions to promote sustainable economic growth, support human rights, mitigate threats to security, and help people around the world live longer, healthier lives. Introduction to Global Health emphasizes strategies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, reproductive health concerns, nutritional disorders, noncommunicable diseases, mental health disorders, and injuries, featuring strategies for health promotion across the lifespan.
Ralph J. Health Behavior Theory will provide your students with a balanced professional education — one that explores the essential spectrum of theoretical tools as well as the core practices. Divided into three sections, the book takes a unique ecological approach to learning about health behavior theory and its application. The reader will first gain a broad understanding of health, public health, health behavior and health promotion planning.
This is followed by a straightforward and expansive look at the most commonly applied theories and approaches to public health research and programs. Divided into five parts, the book first introduces preparedness functions within the context of Public Health including the workforce, the role of state and local governments and related legal issues. Part two examines the various types of hazards and threats including natural; pandemic; infectious disease; as well as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards.
The public health community plays a vital role in identifying, responding to, containing, and recovering from emergencies. Essentials of Public Health Preparedness will introduce your students to the important and timely field of public health preparedness. The book presupposes no previous exposure to the concepts, yet provides enough depth for students who may have advanced knowledge. Essentials of Public Health Biology. Essentials of Public Health Biology is designed as an introductory text for undergraduates and as part of the MPH core that aims: 1 to provide an overview of current knowledge about the biologic mechanisms of diseases that are major causes of death and disability in both developed and developing countries; 2 to understand and interpret the reciprocal relationships of genetic, environmental, and behavioral determinants of health and disease within an ecologic context; and 3 to provide opportunities to analyze, discuss, and communicate biologic principles of disease across the biological and the public health spectra.
Robert J. Updated and revised to keep pace with changes in the field, the fourth edition of Community and Public Health Education Methods: A Practical Guide teaches students to effectively communicate health education messages and positively influence the norms and behaviors of both individuals and communities.
Written by and for health education specialists, this text explores the methods used by health educators, including didactic techniques designed to guide others toward the pursuit of a healthy lifestyle. The text is divided into three sections, each containing chapters that center on a common theme. Section I focuses on building the foundation for selecting and applying community health education methods, including chapters focusing on theories and models, becoming a professional, promoting multicultural diversity, social marketing concepts, and health communication strategies.
Thoroughly revised and updated, Nutrition in Public Health explores the complex, multifaceted array of programs and services that exist in the United States today that are dedicated to bettering population health through improved nutrition. The Fourth Edition explores the subject by first considering how nutrition fits into public health and then by examining policymaking, assessment and intervention methods, special populations, food security, and program management.
Issel, L. Health Program Planning and Evaluation, Fourth Edition carefully walks the reader through the process for developing, implementing, and evaluating successful community health promotion programs. Featuring reader-friendly, accessible language and practical tools and concepts, this outstanding resource prepares students and professionals to become savvy consumers of evaluation reports and prudent users of evaluation consultants.
Foundations of Infection Control and Prevention offers a foundation in the critical concepts in infection control. Perfect for those with no prior exposure to medical terminology, this hands-on, practical text offers case examples of specific pathogens and avoids complex technical jargon, without being too simplistic. Each chapter includes an introduction to a specific pathogen so that the reader gains the basic knowledge of the diseases of most importance in the developed world.
Designed for use in undergraduate programs, Foundations of Infection Control and Prevention is also an excellent resource for those studying for the certification in infection prevention and control CICR examination administered by Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology. Parvanta, Claudia F. Students will learn core concepts for planning a communication framework as well key strategies for educating the public about health issues including understanding and reporting science, communicating for policy and advocacy, and health literacy and numeracy.
The book thoroughly explores classic theories of persuasion in communication such as Extended Parallel Process Model, Inoculation, Sensation Value, and Cognitive Value. Essentials of Biostatistics in Public Health. Lisa M. The examples are real, relevant, and manageable in size so that students can easily focus on applications rather than become overwhelmed by computations. The Third Edition offers a new chapter on data visualization and interpretation including guidance on reporting statistical results in tables, figures and text.
Examples of well-organized, detailed and appropriately formatted tables and figures are provided along with samples of how best to interpret them. Examples of poorly organized tables and figures are also included to illustrate common misinterpretations of results, due in part to lack of clarity in presentation. Rose, Patti R. Despite the many Public Health successes over the last century, health disparity continues to exist in in American society. This introductory text addresses this topic head on, exploring steps that must be taken to prepare for the rapidly changing demographics in American society, including immigration reform emerging majorities , and evidenced based information substantiating the fact that diversity matters in terms of the provision of health care.
Diversity is examined in terms of patient satisfaction and quality outcomes with an emphasis on racial, ethnic, gender, and linguistic diversity. The book highlights steps that key stakeholders, including federal, state, and private health care and public health entities, should take to ensure that representatives from emerging majority groups are involved with and serve as leaders in terms of the provision of health care at every level.
The discussion of diversity is contrasted with the concept of cultural competency and how both go hand in hand in terms of the ultimate goal of closing the health status gap in the United States. Irish law currently permits abortion only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. Consequently, most people in Ireland who wish to bring their pregnancies to an end either import the abortion pill illegally, travel abroad to access abortion, or continue with the pregnancy against their will. Now, however, there are signs of change. A constitutional referendum will be held in , after which it will be possible to reimagine, redesign, and reform the law on abortion.
Written by experts in the field, this book draws on experience from other countries, as well as experiences of maternal medical care in Ireland, to call for a feminist, woman-centered, and rights-based radical new approach to abortion law in Ireland. Directly challenging grounds-based abortion law, this accessible guide brings together feminist analysis, comparative research, human rights law, and political awareness to propose a new constitutional and legislative settlement on reproductive autonomy in Ireland. It offers practical proposals for policymakers and advocates, including model legislation, making it an essential campaigning tool leading up to the referendum.
Ginige, J. The term Telehealth covers a wide spectrum of disciplines, ranging from the enabling of direct clinical interventions to patient-centered care needs such as personal monitoring and care team support, as well as education, policy and professional aspects. Contributing to the solving of healthcare sustainability challenges and supporting the development and delivery of a wide range of innovative care and treatment models, Telehealth also acts as a major driver for change in global health issues.
This book, Transforming Healthcare Through Innovation in Digital Health, presents the accepted full-paper, double-blinded, peer-reviewed contributions, as well as the editor-reviewed invited keynote papers, delivered at the 7th International Conference on Global Telehealth GT , held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on 10 and 11 October The conference provided a platform for the sharing of best practice and research directions across the international Telehealth community, and the 14 papers presented here deal with a variety of themes ranging from data collection and analysis to the design of interventions and delivery mechanisms, in situations from public health and primary care through to consumer health informatics, and from implementation and algorithm design to privacy and ethical considerations.
Urban planning is deeply implicated in both the planetary crisis of climate change and the personal crises of unhealthy lifestyles. Worldwide health issues such as obesity, mental illness, growing health inequalities and climate vulnerability cannot be solved solely by medicines but also by tackling the social, economic and environmental determinants.
In a time when unhealthy and unsustainable conditions are being built into the physical fabric of cities, a new awareness and strategy is urgently needed to putting health and well-being at the heart of planning. The Routledge Handbook of Planning for Health and Well-being authoritatively and comprehensively integrates health into planning, strengthening the hands of those who argue and plan for healthy environments. With contributions from international leaders in the field, the Handbook of Planning for Health and Well-being provides context, philosophy, research, processes, and tools of experienced practitioners through case studies from four continents.
The prevention and treatment of diseases is a primary concern for any nation in modern society. To maintain an effective public health system, procedures and infrastructure must be analyzed and enhanced accordingly. Public Health and Welfare: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research perspectives on public health initiatives and promotion efforts.
Highlighting critical analyses and emerging innovations on an international scale, this book is a pivotal reference source for professionals, researchers, academics, practitioners, and students interested in the improvement of public health infrastructures. Climate change is one of the most widely debated and worrisome topics of our time. As environmental changes become more prevalent, there has been evidence to suggest that there is a correlation between the environment and a substantial increase of infectious diseases and viruses around the globe.
Examining the Role of Environmental Change on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Pandemics investigates the impact of climate change in relation to the emergence and spread of global diseases. Highlighting epidemiological factors and policies to govern epidemics and pandemics, this publication is a critical reference source for medical professionals, students, environmental scientists, advocates, policy makers, academics, and researchers.
Taking a thematic approach, this four volume collection presents the essential articles on: Theories and policies in public health Epidemiology Environmental public health Ecological and systems approaches International contexts The Major Work takes a comparative approach, looking both historically and internationally at this very important subject area. Haveman-nies, A. Over the past decades, epidemiology has made a relevant contribution to public health by identifying health problems and analysing their determinants.
Recent developments call for new and applied methods to support the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health policies and programmes. This book presents an integrated overview of such epidemiological methods, to be used within the joined working process of several public health disciplines. It provides relevant theories, concepts and tools, illustrated with practical examples in order to empower epidemiologists in public health.
The first part of this book describes epidemiological history in a nutshell and explains the relationship with the public health domain. It closes with the presentation of a joint work cycle for policy, practice and research: the public health cycle. Part two presents seven steps epidemiologists should follow to strengthen their contribution to the public health cycle: conduct a needs assessment, support priority setting, formulate aims and objectives, construct a logic model, develop an evaluation plan, perform quality control, and analyse processes and outcomes.
Part three illustrates the institutional architecture of public health and describes the professional fields of policy and health promotion as knowledge of these major fields facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration in each stage of the public health cycle. This book is intended for students and epidemiologists in public health practice. It was written by 20 Dutch authors with either longstanding experience or fresh enthusiasm. The editors are all affiliated with Academic Collaborative Centres for Public Health in the Netherlands, which aim to bridge the gap between policy, practice and research.
Health policy thinking must change. This book explores the fundamental currents and tensions that lie behind recent trends such as shared decision-making, co-production, and personalisation. These are often discussed in relation to an epidemiological transition but this text argues that they embody a philosophical transition — a change in our conceptions of healthcare and of appropriate forms of knowledge and analysis.
As clinical concerns are increasingly nested within social concerns then policy analysis must engage with the multiple philosophical tensions that are now centre stage. Designed to address the One Health expectations for graduate as well as undergraduate public health students as proposed by CEPH, this 60 page analysis is also suitable for courses in Nursing, Health Science, and Allied Health. Introduction to Health Research Methods. Jacobsen, Kathryn H. In five sections, Introduction to Health Research Methods describes the entire research process beginning with the identification of a research question and the selection of a study approach, proceeding through the collection and analysis of data and the preparation of a formal scientific report, and ending with academic and professional presentations and publishing.
By breaking the research process down into manageable steps, Introduction to Health Research Methods communicates the excitement and importance of health research—and encourages readers to make their own contribution to improving the health of individuals and communities through research. Revised and updated with the latest data from the field, the Third Edition of Theoretical Foundations of Health Education and Health Promotion introduces students to common theories from behavioral and social sciences that are currently being used in health behavior, health education, and promotion.
Each discussion of theory is accompanied by a practical skill-building activity in the context of planning and evaluation and a set of application questions that will assist the student in mastering the application of the theory. Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies. Global Health Care: Issues and Policies, Third Edition provides students with current information on various global health topics.
Written by academic authors, scientists and health practitioners, the text prepares students with a basic perspective of health policy issues from various geographical regions, and explains how they are affected by significant world events. The text addresses international health and healthcare at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Behavioral Interventions for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Ritter, Lois A. Health care professionals work in a diverse society that presents both opportunities and challenges so being culturally competent is essential to their role. Fully updated and expanded, the Second Edition of Multicultural Health serves as a comprehensive guide for healthcare workers in any cultural community. Focusing on differences in cultural beliefs about health and illness, and models for cross-cultural health and communication, this text helps students and professionals learn effective ways to implement health promotion programs and program evaluation across cultures.
Introduction to Public Health. Introduction to Public Health, Fifth Edition offers a thorough, accessible overview of the expanding field of public health for students new to its concepts and actors. Written in engaging, nontechnical language, this best-selling text explains in clear terms the multi-disciplinary strategies and methods used for measuring, assessing, and promoting public health.
Essentials of Health Economics. Dewar, Diane M. The Second Edition of Essentials of Health Economics examines the public health care system through the lens of economics.
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