He returned to Barcelona in In Granados premiered his suite for piano Goyescas , which became his most famous work. It is a set of six pieces based on paintings of Francisco Goya. Such was the success of this work that he was encouraged to expand it. He wrote an opera based on the subject in , but the outbreak of World War I forced the European premiere to be canceled. It was performed for the first time in New York City on 28 January and was very well received. Shortly afterwards, he was invited to perform a piano recital for President Woodrow Wilson. Before leaving New York, Granados also made live-recorded player piano music rolls for the New-York-based Aeolian Company 's " Duo-Art " system, all of which survive today and can be heard — his very last recordings.
The delay incurred by accepting the recital invitation caused him to miss his boat back to Spain. In a failed attempt to save his wife Amparo, whom he saw flailing about in the water some distance away, Granados jumped out of his lifeboat and drowned. However, the ship broke in two parts, and only one sank along with 80 passengers. Ironically, the part of the vessel that contained his cabin did not sink and was towed to port, with most of the passengers, except for Granados and his wife, on board.
The personal papers of Enrique Granados are preserved in, among other institutions, the National Library of Catalonia. Granados wrote piano music, chamber music a piano quintet , a piano trio, music for violin and piano , songs, zarzuelas , and an orchestral tone poem based on Dante's Divine Comedy. Notwithstanding that perforations on the piano rolls could easily be pasted or punched in during the editorial process, some authors assume that Granados would have been actively involved in this manipulation. Whether Granados was involved in this editorial process and to what extent is not yet known.
However, both statements found in the Leikin and Boileau editions are assumptions and cannot be justified as certain, particularly as original manuscripts reveal deviations. Despite the mechanical limitations of acoustic and reproducing piano roll recordings, they do assist in the fleshing out of a portrait of the composer and performer. In recognition of this, in , the US developed a new copyright law for sound recordings in placing equal value on mechanical reproduction and score as sources for research. This new law allowed composers to receive royalties for each cylinder, disc or piano roll that was sold Limitations of Availability of Sources There was limited access to sources, as the process of transferring the MIDI files of the piano rolls has only recently begun, and the transference itself is a time-consuming process.
The assistance of two engineer experts in the field was required. The author was fortunate to work with Peter Philips in Sydney, who provided precious material from his personal music archive, including an extensive catalogue of more than piano rolls, around being from the Condon Collection. Also the researcher has worked with Jordi Roquer, who transferred the piano rolls from the collection at the Biblioteca Nacional de Catalunya. Due to some technical limitations, the author of this thesis was not able to investigate fully the matter of pedalling in the Hupfeld rolls both sustained and soft pedals.
That is why it was a much more laborious and time consuming task to extract this information from the Hupfeld rolls than from the system created by Philips. Also, the indication of the use of soft pedal in the WM rolls tends not to be very reliable or accurate, due to problematic technical issues in the rolls. The author has therefore decided to refrain from any in depth analysis of the left pedal usage until a future time when such issues have hopefully been resolved.
Modern pedagogical piano methods were established at the Conservatorium. However, these new Spanish conservatories adopted the models of other European piano schools. The first Spanish piano methods were written in the s At that time, French piano techniques were influenced by the Viennese School, based on arm immobility and an over-reliance on the use of the hands and fingers. These French methodologies evolved to encompass a wider range of dynamics and sonorities, influenced by the increased role of the arm and weight transference, inherited from the English school at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Spanish piano technique was certainly influenced by French piano methods; many of the pianists trained in Paris and returned to Spain with new methodologies. There are also chapters dedicated to other aspects, crucial to performance such as the use of metronome, position at the piano, choosing the instrument, how to practise and even a tuning method to preserve the instrument in the best conditions is explained in detail. Sobejano Ayala Madrid: Bartolome Wirmbs, The Catalan school of piano players was founded by Pujol in Barcelona. Pujol and the Catalan School of Piano Players Pujol, considered the father of the Catalan School of piano players was a prominent virtuoso, pedagogue and composer born in Barcelona.
He wrote many virtuosic works for piano which are stylistically akin to the works of Liszt and provide evidence of his extraordinary piano technique. He lived in the French capital for twenty years, where he had a successful career as a concert pianist. He returned to Barcelona in at the outbreak of the Franco- Prussian war and gave concerts in several parts of Spain.
He was also involved in bringing back to life the musical culture in Barcelona, organizing concert series and opening a music editorial in which he published many works by Spanish composers. His students often described him as a devoted and loving teacher that cared deeply for his students, but also as an authoritarian.
Musicografia , no. He knew how to make a big impression and how to assert his authority. For quite some years now, I have not been in accordance with this method of proceeding. In , Pujol published a new method, Nuevo Mecanismo del Piano A New Approach to Piano Technique a progressive approach aimed at solving some of the most challenging technical difficulties in piano playing. His study is the result of inherited pedagogical insights and his own lifetime investigations. A study of this method is essential to the understanding of the pianistic legacy inherited by Granados whose pedagogical approach was significantly influenced by the teachings of Pujol He strongly believed fingering and pedalling to be crucial elements in the quality of sound production.
Accordingly, he recommends that students develop a full awareness of the correct positioning of the arm and hand muscles involved in the movements for the execution of scales, arpeggios, octaves and thirds as well as an awareness of the state of relaxation of those same muscles. An example of new fingerings proposed by Pujol is shown in Figure Se supo dar importancia.
Fingerings by Joan Baptista Pujol. Figure 13 presents an example found in his method Las sonoridades del piano In Appendix II of his method, Pujol briefly introduces and describes three forms of sound production in relation to the use of pedal followed by a selection of practical examples addressed to solve specific technical challenges. He claims that even the most refined pianist possessing a brilliant technique is not able to capture the true colour and character of a particular work without the correct use of pedal.
Markings are indicated using rhythmical figures to indicate the precise moment that the student should press and release the pedal. This visual system opened the path to Lliurat, Las sonoridades del piano, 4. Mechanism, Sonorities and its Use. Granados adopted the symbol while Marshall used. Use of pedal in series of chords by Joan Baptista Pujol. Granados began his training with Pujol in As a composer, Pedrell wrote hundreds of musical works, the most significant being his vocal compositions. He led them through a rigorous technical formation and encouraged a deep knowledge of old Spanish masterpieces.
The golden age of Spanish pianism was achieved through the devoted work of a generation of composers with a clear goal: the renewal of Spanish music. Paris: Ollendorff, , 29— Granados was the only pianist to pass on this legacy through his teaching. In , he founded the Academia Granados in Barcelona thanks to the generosity of several private donors. Located in Avenida Tibidabo, Barcelona, it soon became an important centre of pianistic training in Spain.
His teachings have been passed on through his student Frank Marshall who became one of the greatest pedagogues in Spain continuing the tradition and passing it to outstanding pianists such as Rosa Sabater and Alicia de Larrocha. The piano was considered more of an instrument to accompany singers, dancers or to rehearse operas. His legacy has arrived to us through his complete oeuvre, pedagogical methods and the performing tradition passed on by his direct followers. While his works and some of his pedagogical methods have been explored, the historical value of Granados as seen by some of his most brilliant students has gone unremarked.
The Regulations of the Academia Granados included two main objectives: to educate students as performers and audience and secondly to develop a more holistic artistic sensibility for example, through active participation in poetry readings. Granados gave conferences on piano performance and organized public recitals for his students. Granados used his creativity to develop pedagogical tools for his students during the course of the lessons and in doing so established pedagogical methods that are still in use today In the very first lesson Granados would ask the new student to perform a scale, an arpeggio and a few bars of anything.
Normally after this lesson the student would be prompted to follow a special regime in which he was not allowed to perform anything but the exercises dictated by Granados, often one fixed position exercise, the C Major Scale and its arpeggio. These exercises would be the only work that the student could perform until every position of forearms, wrist, hand and the thumb were well understood.
Boladeres also developed a piano method greatly influenced by the teachings of Granados, in which he states that all pianists can attain a perfect technique with the right method He describes two types of pianists: those who effortlessly achieve a natural sound and those who need to train their muscles to assimilate different positions naturally. The ones who attain a great technique with little effort are not able to understand those in need of a slow learning process, and therefore they are not able to teach those principles.
La estrella del alba Buenos Aires: Editorial Nova, , The explanation includes drawings by Granados. Besides the development of pedagogical tools to overcome some of the most challenging technical difficulties in piano playing, Granados focussed on the study of style and interpretation. In his first conference, Granados describes some methods to perform with feeling in which intensity and flexibility are greatly involved.
Granados was a very imaginative and elegant pianist with an extraordinary creativity and refined flexibility in his approach to phrasing. This combination created a natural and effortless form of musical expression. He sought to pass on to his students a way to attain such expression. Granados, Integral para piano, He also explains different forms of staccato articulation using a very graphic and original comparison with a set of heated irons in different temperatures to explain varied speeds in the release of the key.
Transferring to the keyboard the action of touching with the fingertips the steel sheets will result in a variation of touches ranging from what he calls staccato de retroceso withdrawal staccato to staccato de martillo hammer staccato. Our finger would release the key instantly when touching the hottest iron, and therefore, if the same movement is done on a keyboard, the sound produced will be a soft and short sound, staccato de retroceso.
This effect is lost as the iron gets colder, when playing the keyboard the sound produced will be what he calls picado-ligado staccato-legato , finally when touching a cold iron the finger can stay, producing a legato sound. Granados points out that the hand needs to be close to the keyboard, unless we are aiming for a staccato de martillo otherwise the hand would have a movement which does not allow withdrawal.
Granados frequently compares the gradations in colour achieved by the visual artist to the gradations in sound by the musician. He believed that these elements were crucial in order to achieve gentleness in playing. He points out that audiences are not always aware of the subtleties in the legato sound and lamented the lack of a good quality legato sound in many pianists. According to A common trend during the Modernism in Barcelona, in which Nature is was the inspiration of this new aesthetics. There are many examples to be found in the works of architect Antonio Gaudi Reus o Riudoms, —Barcelona 10 June Granados, Integral para piano, 60— Archivo de la Academia Marshall, Barcelona.
This, he remarks, is the reason why the human voice or wind instruments are so expressive. The recitativo is one melodic line, to be performed with the right hand. He pointed out that this melody recalls the sound of a wind instrument or a human voice, for this he recommended one avoids playing two sounds simultaneously.
Because they are not capable of producing two notes together. That is unless the gap between the notes cannot be reached by the hand, there are two or more repeated notes in the melody, or the melody is interrupted with a rest or fermata Granados strongly encouraged students to learn the works written by the great masters in music history. He was a great admirer of Ludwig van Beethoven. Recently, Oliver Curbelo has unveiled a third method, El pedal. Marshall was considered the best representative of this tradition and in , The Academia Granados changed its name to Academia Marshall A great number of students studied at the academy.
But there are three who became internationally acclaimed and outstanding pianists: Albert Attenelle, Rosa Sabater and Alicia de Larrocha. Despite his English surname, he felt a deep connection to Catalonia and would ask people to pronounce his surname using Catalan phonetics. When his family moved to Barcelona he started his piano study with Granados.
Marshall became an internationally successful pianist, unfortunately he suffered severe stage panic that affected him dramatically in every concert until he felt he could not cope with it. Although the concert was successfully performed, the intensity of this experience caused Marshall to change his focus to pedagogy, becoming one of the most prominent piano pedagogues in Spain. Vistes al Mar. Finally, the name was changed to the Marshall Academy. In , in their centenary celebration, the Academy changed its name again paying tribute to the Spanish composer, becoming the Granados-Marshall Academy.
In the same way that Granados was strict about technical perfection, Marshall was highly demanding with his students when performing scales, arpeggios and other etudes, which were mostly etudes by Johann Baptist Cramer and Carl Czerny. Ricart describes some of the activities taking place at the academy during his study with Marshall. Those activities involved learning the art of reciting poetry and declamation.
19th-century male musicians
This is evidence that Marshall was concerned about the continuation of the methodologies initiated by Granados, who encouraged his students to study other forms of artistic expression, such as poetry. A continuing line of tradition is also traced in a meticulous attention to accuracy and the striving for perfection in every lesson, evidenced in the writings of Boladeres. Sonority was an obsession for Marshall, according to Attenelle.
He encouraged his students to be aware of every physical subtlety involved in the production of sound, in other words, to bring to the maximum the capabilities of each student and for each to understand differences of finger and arm pressures. Sonority is affected by speed and pressure of the fingers on the key.
The three Marshall followers agreed during the interview that this kind of physical contact with the student was a very effective method to demonstrate principles. Marshall was a great pedagogue with the extraordinary ability to design efficiently individual learning programs to develop future pianists.
His care and devotion as a teacher were praised by his three followers. Marshall had a special sense of humour, perhaps inherited from his British roots, and would make puns on the titles of musical works According to Attenelle, the continuation of the academy was possible thanks to her altruism and generosity.
When Marshall died, the academy went through a period of economic instability and the end of the academy seemed to be approaching. Iglesias, Enrique Granados: su obra para piano, Xavier Chavarria The detailed history of the Academy is found in the book made for the celebration of the hundred anniversary of the Academy. Pianists should be aware of the substantial number of deviations between these different sources and make interpretative decisions based on this knowledge. It reveals a compositional idiom identified by its elegance, delicacy and pianistic refinement, which was greatly developed by Granados in his later piano works.
It is likely that Granados felt as intrigued by the waltz genre like so many other composers such as Schubert, Chopin and Ravel. Granados exquisitely explores the nuances of this genre using the traditional waltz ternary form. He also performed his Spanish dances and premiered his piano quintet op. Furthermore, Ravel composed Valses Nobles et Sentimentales. The suite concludes with a repetition of the first waltz.
Granados points at the morphology of the instrument, in which once a note is struck on the piano, it immediately begins to lose its intensity. Therefore, when performing a melody, if the next note is attacked with the same intensity, the melodic line would be affected by an accent breaking the expressive melodic intention in the performance. Figure 15 is an example given by Granados to illustrate this idea in a graph, where A, D and B are consecutive notes and C, E and F the intensity of each of the notes. The curved line is the sonority of the note after being struck. According to Granados, to achieve beauty in expression, the second note should not have the intensity of DF as in AC, but rather should have the intensity of DE.
The graph suggests that after playing the three notes, there is no sound remaining. Report on the 1st lecture by the maestro Granados, presented at Sala Granados on October 30, The intensity of this attack decreases to match the level of sound from the note that has been struck before.
In the piano roll transcription below the intensity in which the key is pressed for each note in the melody moves in parallel to the melodic line indicated with blue circles. The lines on top are the melodic notes and the blue circles below are the intensity. So the intensity decreases as the melodic line decreases too. There is a tendency to diminuendo at the end of each melodic phrase in the first four bars increasing in intensity from bar 5 to 7 as the music slowly begins to rise. A similar intention is suggested by Monteys and Attenelle in bars 9—17 of the Introduction, in which the dynamics follow a natural ebb and flow in intensity, parallel to the melodic line.
Accordingly, Attenelle recommends that placing one pedal for the two bars could help achieve a very effective crescendo on a modern instrument. When teaching a melody, he draws arcs over musical phrases, indicating the subtle ebb and flow of tempo within each bar. He points out that this graph is deliberately exaggerated in order to show the arcs with clarity. The first sixteen bars are musically divided into two groups of eight bars and each group of eight bars is divided again into two groups of four bars.
The second beat in each of the four bars is shorter in length, suggesting a subtle acceleration and also a corresponding deceleration on the third beat, corresponding with his pedagogy and describing imaginary arcs for every bar figure Also, the duration of each bar varies as well, the last of the four bars being the longest. In bars 13— 16 the melodic line is connected in one slur and marked as molto rall dim, with a tenuto ten for every half dotted note in the melody in Ms2.
The same bars are indicated as rit molto with accents on the half dotted notes, followed by the marking a tempo in bar 17 in MsC. This form of rubato was also suggested by Monteys during the lessons with this author. She advised a very subtle sub-phrasing shown in figure 21 in which the melodic motion tends to accelerate in beat 2 and decelerate in beats 1 and 3 for every bar, emphasising the waltz feel. In bars 33—40, Monteys suggests an eight bar pattern in which bars are played a tempo followed by meno in bars 37—38 with a rall.
In the performances of Larrocha and Attenelle there are inflections in the tempo at the end of every 4-bar motive, with subtle tempo differences in connections between motives. Figure 23 shows both WM and H1 transcriptions of Granados performance, in both versions Granados keeps a consistent performance in which he accelerates progressively through the eight notes in bars 33—34, returning to the main tempo with a rallentando in bars 35— A similar pattern is followed for bars 37—40 with a greater rallentando starting earlier from bar The next eight bar melodic line, from bar 41 to 48, is performed similarly, however the rallentandos are much more pronounced in bar Bars 47— 48, the last two bars of the waltz, are marked as ritardando in MsC and even with a new tempo indication, Andante, in the original manuscript Ms2.
This view is supported by Monteys, who advises using a phrasing in bars 7—8 in which the first quavers are played with great expressivity and progressively accelerate towards the second half of bar 8. This expressive way of phrasing, indicated as rubato in the Boileau, is found in MsC, in which there is even a notation to show the desired note lengths written above and below the notes as shown in appendix two. However this situation highlights the problem that results when one relies solely on new technology to draw interpretative conclusions and not on the ear as well.
What we hear in the actual recording is that the two notes do not sound simultaneously. The transcription misleadingly captures the moment in which the key is released slowly while the next key is depressed. Monteys suggested a similar sense of fantasy and rubato. In his vision, the melodic groups represent the arcs that stretch from column to column.
In every column—the point of rest—the pedal needs to be changed because any dissonance at this point is unbearable for the ear. The dissonance of the melodic groups within the arch is acceptable as it resolves at the point of rest. The combination of these create a greater number of possibilities, and he presents some valuable solutions to difficulties in the use of pedal.
For example, Granados illustrates six different uses of the pedal, such as that used for different tempos, melodic groups, jumps, incidental notes, registers and rhythmic accentuation and style, and syncopated pedal. He also explains the use of fast and slow pedalling technique. Therefore, indications for pedalling would be Vol. Every point of pedal is marked at the exact moment, using mental divisions for every original value as shown in figure Theoretical-Practical Method for the Use of the Pedals In September , Granados wrote a companion to his previous pedalling method.
Granados was particularly concerned with the performance of ornaments and he wrote a great range of exercises to address the technical challenges involved in this aspect of piano playing. In the section on Ornaments, Granados describes the methodology involved in performing ornaments. Granados uses a specific symbology to notate mordents and appoggiaturas. Integral para piano, Furthermore, when reviewing his latest original manuscript Ms2, interestingly enough, a different ornamentation is given for both figures Sometimes there are ornaments in published editions which do not appear in any original source.
He was a man of his time and his sensitivity to technological developments was driven by his search for innovation and improvement. During the Exposition Universelle of World Fair in Paris he foresaw the advantages of innovation in the field of musical instruments, printing technologies and recording mechanisms. Thanks to his innovative mind, we have today a series of recordings by the composer which provide a unique insight into his pianistic approach. As mentioned previously, Granados would never perform twice in the same way. There is much evidence confirming this fact, as in the numerous deviations found between his original manuscripts and performances on piano roll.aktiv-vita.ru/modules/73-wie-kauft.php
Since the piano roll recordings were produced after the manuscripts and published editions, we can observe these differences not so much as inconsistencies but rather as part of an on-going creative process. Given that Granados is both performer and composer of these original sources, serious thought should be given to this situation. There is reason to believe that his recordings meant to Granados a new form of publishing music, given the new copyright laws in the US , which placed mechanical reproduction of sound on equal footing with writing, Larrocha and Granados, Spanish Dances: Works for Piano.
This sometimes made life difficult for his students who were criticised for taking liberties with the score, when in fact, it was Granados directing them to make these changes. Some of the trends identified are outlined below. This new musicological work is possible today thanks to the latest technologies available. La estrella del alba, This type of rubato, also known as dislocation and not notated on the score, is identified in the writings of Ernest Schelling, who was a student of the great Polish pianist Paderewsky and a friend of Granados.
Today, modern authors advocate that this style of rubato was characteristic of the period Therefore, what might be considered a mannerism or peculiarity by some could also be considered a legitimate stylistic trait for those performers in search of authentic performance practice. Figure 26, is a good example of the use of dislocation to emphasize the intervallic gap between the bass and the melody in bar 55, but not in bars 54 and 56, producing a contrasting effect between the melodic and rhythmic expressive patterns.
Figure 24 is another example of dislocation to emphasize the expressive interval between the bass and the melody in bar 5, and also to emphasize the fourth in the melodic interval between C and F as opposition to the chromatic ascending line in the previous four bars.
Once more, the performance of Granados might seem rather improvisatory in the use of dislocation. Another trend apparent throughout the performances of Granados is the use of arpeggiated chords. Again, as in contrametric rubato, this feature is not notated in his original manuscripts. Similarly to the device of dislocation, its purpose has a specific expressive musical meaning and therefore demands a great caution and knowledge when drawing on this particular stylistic trend.
Most of the time, Granados uses arpeggiation in the openings and endings of musical phrases, such as in the example in figure The arpeggiation is not generally found in any of his original manuscripts, but it should be considered by the student in their approach to interpretation. Agogics are an aspect of interpretation strongly related to expressive musical elements such as phrasing and rubato, and often related to accents in a language.
He befriended many modernist Catalan poets of the time, adapting their poems to music. Arpeggiation is heard in conjunction with agogics to emphasize particular notes, the arpeggiation leading to a note of the melody which is itself delayed, creating an especially expressive effect. In figure 26, both agogics and arpeggiation are found in bar In this example, Granados uses both devices to emphasize expressively the melodic inflection, the graph helps to visualize this melodic inflection in his performance which is carefully notated in his MsC manuscript.
There are some elements which are not found in any manuscripts that can only be explored through his original piano roll recordings. The C becomes a strong voicing element in the melodic line in WM, Granados arpeggiates the chord, delaying the C and performing it after the second semiquaver in bar He explains that the harmonic colouring of a 5th produced by this note and the fourth semiquaver of the bar would be lost otherwise. There are more examples throughout Granados renditions showing his tendency to hold particular notes as a result of his particular care for the sonority this creates.
Further in the same mentioned waltz, he holds with the finger specific notes in the bass line, as a finger pedalling device bars 41 to All this serves to exemplify his taste for particular sonorities that result from holding certain notes with fingers rather than with the pedal. Undoubtedly Granados had a great talent for improvisation, but sometimes his recordings point to a consistency not always noted in the score.
The possibility of comparing both recordings enables the listener to detect differences and similarities in notation. On the one hand, remarkable deviations are found. In bar 15 of the Introduction, the WM recording shows a hand placement in which Granados would have performed the B3 with the left hand. This would have allowed him to keep a natural flow in the melodic line in a fast tempo. In the transcription of the piano roll recordings, E5 is aligned to B3; this is only possible by playing the B3 with the left hand. In bar 43 and 44 this is more obvious as he performs B3 and A3 in the left hand almost together as a chord aligned with the E5.
Granados was deeply concerned with the importance of establishing a methodical approach in which the correct use of physical means helped to achieve the ideal sound in the works he used to perform. He was a pianist who carefully planned his hand choreography at the keyboard and therefore he was very accurate and thoughtful in choosing his fingerings. This is another example that demonstrates his critical perspective and methodical approach at the keyboard, not only with his students but also as applied to his own personal working methods at the instrument.
Beginning with the titles, the differences reveal changes in character and style throughout the various stages in the composition of this work. The author points out the numerous differences between the three manuscripts, and enumerates as an example all the deviations found in the titles of the first waltz.
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In Ms1, the work starts on the second half of the page, following a Mazurka indicated as op. The title reads Petite valse, catalogued by the composer as op. On the top of the page Granados writes op. No title is given in Ms1, only tempo Allegro is indicated. Only MsC indicates the exact tempo value for this waltz and the tempo is indicated as 66 for the dotted minim.
There is also a pedal indication that reads pedal celeste a term that probably refers to the soft pedal another example of the numerous deviations is found in the actual title of the work. Accordingly, one of the original pianos used by Granados can be found at the Biblioteca Nacional de Catalunya. The piano, from , was a present from Pleyel himself. Although the instrument has been recently restored, its mechanism is currently rather slow and it does not respond very well to speed. In order to hear the sound of this piano, I have recorded Allegro de concierto.
The sound is clear and the beauty of its sound quality is enchanting. In manuscript Ms2, the main title given is Op. In this program all the following titles for each waltz coincide with Ms2, except for waltz No. The titles in the UME, the first published edition, are inconsistent with the original sources. The thorough exploration of terminology enlightens the approach to stylistic values in Granados music.
For example, bar 41 of waltz No. In MsC, bar 37 is indicated as meno e p, leading one to think that meno for Granados is an indication for tempo modification. The performance of Granados in his piano rolls confirm that this indication refers to tempo, therefore the author assumes that the indication of meno in Granados refers to a tempo indication. What may seem to be a notational mistake by Granados might, however, reveal his initial intention regarding the phrasing of this opening section. In the WM, Granados emphasizes this phrasing with subtle points of pedal in the first and second bar figure Moreover, this phrasing was also suggested to the researcher during the master- classes with the three direct inheritors of this performance tradition.
The same dynamics should be used with different nuances in articulation in the repeated section bars 5—8. In some of the waltzes this is more apparent in comparison to others. In bars 25—40, for example, Granados elongates the second beat and accentuates the third beat, for every bar in his performances WM and H1.
Also in his manuscript Ms2 there is a written accent on every third beat. This accentuation is not found in published editions, despite the fact that it reveals the musical expression intended by Granados. Therefore it is advisable to perform this work using the waltz rhythm. Figure 30 shows an incorrect application of editorial articulation markings. In both MsC and Ms2, the left hand is slurred throughout the three quarter notes in bars 1—4 as shown in the appendices two and three.
In MsC, this phrasing is also indicated for bars 17—20 and There is no indication of slurs in Ms1. In both published editions, the slur does not correspond to any of the manuscripts. In both UME and Boileau editions there are slurs written between the second and third beat. Moreover in Boileau the first beat carries a tenuto mark indicated in brackets, which means it is a suggestion from the editor Only few indications are authored from Larrocha.
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Douglas Riva, e-mail message to author, March 3, Perhaps his tendency to anticipate most of the bass notes on the first beat might have given the impression of a tenuto. In the following four bars he also sustains particular notes, such the E3 of the left hand in bar 6 and 8 in the WM version. From bars 17 to 32, the main melody is repeated in octaves, to which the UME and Boileau have added the same slurred figure as for bars 1— However, this figure is not present in the octaves in any of the three original manuscripts.
Further, the perforations in both H1 and WM piano rolls suggest a non-legato articulation for bars 17— This articulation combined with the original pedal by Granados shown in figure 31, in which he uses one pedal for each bar, produces a very light and ethereal legato quality sound.
Nocturnes No. 1 in B-Flat Minor, Op. 9: I. Larghetto
This idea was supported by Attenelle, who advised the author to use a non-legato articulation with total freedom in the wrist for the melody in octaves. However, he actually performs non-legato, lifting the hand from the keys as much as the melody allows him with a pedal for each bar. Accordingly, the subtle differences in sound production when adding these nuances in articulation, in combination with pedalling, creates an awareness of these subtle deviations in performance and affects interpretation.
There are also examples in which Granados performs legato avoiding the use of pedal. However, Granados in his own renditions avoids it, using instead a finger legato to shape the phrasing. Larrocha also avoids the use of pedal, however she performs the quavers in the left hand evenly and with a staccato touch, accentuating the last crotchet as it is published in Boileau in brackets as a performance suggestion. Garriga advised the author to use the same articulation as Larrocha. On the other hand, Attenelle advocates the use of pedal, aiming for a lyrical quality of sound in the right hand while the left hand provides the harmonic support of a legato accompaniment.
In some cases, the traditional aural method is not able to accurately detect articulations in a pedalled fragment. Visual graphs show the exact length of each perforation—which is the precise length that Granados holds the keys with his fingers. Since it is not possible to draw general rules concerning articulation in the performance practice of Granados, the author strongly encourages further study of his rolls to avoid misinterpretations.
This musical sequence was apparently meant to be included within the first waltz. In all three different original manuscripts this theme is found, however it has never been published or performed, raising further questions for this investigation. The student can now make an informed choice as to whether or not it should be included in the performance of the waltz. Furthermore, Granados was continuously revising and making changes to his works.
While he was in New York, as per request of his student Madriguera, Granados realized the need for publication of all these new modifications. Since the tradition was continued in the teachings of Marshall, it might be that his knowledge has not been recorded in the tradition.
Some of these missing elements are also relevant to the pedagogical tenets of the composer. In the same waltz in MsC, pedals are indicated from bars 1—6 and from bars 21— The term igual de pedal in bar 7 is crossed out in pencil. There are no pedal markings in Ms2. According to Curbelo, the works that have most pedal indications were written between and , with previous works having few indications Hence, no pedal markings are found in UME or Boileau published editions.
Riva explained to the author that the edition refrained from including any indication that could not be documented Granados placed great emphasis on the use of pedal in his pedagogy, and it is characteristic of the Catalan piano school, playing a crucial role in sound production. Since the use of pedal was a crucial element for expression and sonority in the pedagogy of the Spanish composer, the information in his original piano roll recordings serves as a guide to understanding his performance practices.
Nevertheless, the use of pedals and sound production is always influenced by acoustic conditions that range from the characteristics of the instrument itself to the environment of the venue. Instruction from Enrique Granados on the use of pedal. The study of multiple sources provides a wealth of information for pianists wishing to attain a better understanding of the subtleties of the style and interpretation of the works of Granados. However, the author of this paper believes that the interpretation of this analysis is personal to each pianist, and is therefore meant only to provide pianists with a tool that might serve to foster an awareness of the invaluable information encapsulated in original sources.
The author of this paper encourages every pianist when approaching this music to engage as much as possible in performance based research by personally analysing the original manuscript sources, available to all, in order to internalise the music and gain an understanding of this particular style.
Some authors attribute these deviations to the creative personality of the composer and his constant search for perfection, others to his skills at improvisation. Notwithstanding the truth of these observations, the author of this thesis nevertheless found consistencies between the pedagogical approach found in his writings and his own performance practises that have not been remarked upon previously in the musicological field of research. In this thesis, the author discovered that Granados was more methodical than previously thought.
Granados, the romantic and spontaneous artist, is a concept that might need revision. New musicology enables software-based and traditional methodologies to complement each other. This has allowed the author an environment for augmented listening, and the possibility to accurately and objectively extract information as it is contained in the original piano rolls, without the interference of subjective misinterpretations.
The author believes that the combination of technology and traditional methods of analysis has had an enormously beneficial impact on the outcomes of this thesis. Apart from the ability to more objectively extract data, this research has allowed the author to re-assess the validity of the Hupfeld piano rolls, discarded as inaccurate in previous analyses. The Hupfeld rolls, however need to be listened to on a suitably restored and adjusted instrument, such as the reproducing pianos made by Welte, Ampico and Duo-Art. The listening experience is also dependent on the conditions and capabilities of each instrument.
However, instead the author found most of these pianists had differing opinions. Thus, the pianist in search of authenticy in performance style should closely consider the wealth of information available and multiple perspectives in order to make well-informed performance choices. Attenelle gave his first recital at the age of six. His long dedication to chamber music has allowed him to play trios, quartets and quintets, including piano by Mozart, Beethoven, Ravel, Shostakovich, Messiaen, Guinjoan, J.
Turina, Casablancas, Brotons, Granados, Turina, etc. After the civil war, her family moved back to Barcelona where she started, at the age of five at the Marshall Academy, her piano study with Alicia de Larrocha and Frank Marshall and composition with Xavier Montsalvatge. She made her first recording at the age of 11 and was prize- winner in prestigious piano competitions. She has performed as soloist and with orchestra.
She was teacher at the Marshall Academy and currently she gives piano lessons to a selected group of students privately Carlota Garriga Kuijpers was born in Amberes, Belgium in She began her musical training at the Marshall Academy. Years later she directed the academy, with intense educational work.
As pianist, she has given numerous recitals as soloist with orchestra around the world. She studied composition with Xavier Montsalvatge and has written works for piano solo as well as chamber music works and a Concertino for piano and Orchestra. Unfortunately, today there are no traces of this system as it was destroyed for reasons that are unknown. Most of the rolls on Artecho system use rolls re-mastered from Welte-Mignon, therefore their recordings of Granados might not be a valid source for analysis in this investigation, however further investigation might be advised. These rolls, together with the Ampico Company monopolised the piano roll market as they were cheaper than other systems.
These rolls correctly reproduce phrasing, accent, pedalling, and, what is more, they are endowed with my personality. Yes, incredible as it may seem, I have succeeded in actually embodying in these rolls that subtle something which, for want of a better term, we call personality. Myrtle Ave. The last recordings of Granados were made just a few months before his death with the Aeolian company Duo Art figure These recordings are considered his most mature renditions as performer and composer. Aeolian Co. Vals apasionado III. Vals lento IV. Vals brillante VI. Vals sentimental VII. Vals mariposa VIII.
Dedicada a la Srta. Tasso Villanesca V. Faria VI. Murillo Vol. Valenciana VIII. Mazurka 2.
Reading | Enrique Granados
Berceuse 3. Lento con extasis 4. Allegretto 5. Allegro Appassionato 6. Barron, James. Boladeres Ibern, Guillermo de. Barcelona: Editorial Arte y Letras, s. Estudio sobre la sonata "De la Aurora" de Beethoven : para piano [in Spanish]. Barcelona: A. Estudio sobre la sonata de "Claro de luna" de Beethoven [in Spanish]. Barcelona: Editorial Boileau, Journal of New Music Research 39, no. Clark, Walter Aaron. Enrique Granados : Poet of the Piano. New York: Oxford University Press, Clarke, Eric F. Cook Nicholas.
Empirical Musicology : Aims, Methods, Prospects. Cook, Nicholas. Beyond the Score : Music as Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cook, Nicholas, and Daniel Leech-Wilkinson. Cooke, James Francis. Courier Dover Publications, Da Costa, Neal Peres. Dixon, Simon. Musical Quarterly : Earis, Andrew. Musicae Scientiae 11, no. Escande, Alfredo. Translated by Charles and Marisa Herrera Postlewate. Amadeus Press, Evans, Edwin. London: W. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, Fay, Amy.
Music-Study in Germany. New York: Dover Publications, Felipe, Pedrell. Paris: Ollendorff, Madrid: Samaran, Fontana, Eszter. Namhafte Pianisten im Aufnahmesalon Hupfeld. Psychology of Music 24, no. Gavoty, Bernard Claudio Arrau.
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