Examine Figure Even though each of these connections will be covered in more detail later, they are necessary to understanding the big picture of how networks intercommunicate. You should also know the terms server, bridge, router, hub, node, communications network, and communications line.
Computer Networks - Basic Connections Understand each of the following connections. Examine the figure from the text or create your own example for each connection. Describe how this connection works in simple terms. Be sure to talk about forms of convergence in this chapter and all subsequent chapters. Network Architecture Models To keep the pieces of a network working together harmoniously and to allow modularity between the pieces, it is necessary to use a network architecture model, or communications model, that places the appropriate network pieces in layers.
Each layer in the model defines what services are provided by either hardware or software or both. For example, most organizations that produce some type of product or perform a service have a division of labor. Secretaries do the paperwork; accountants keep the books; laborers perform the manual duties; scientists design products; engineers test the products; managers control operations.
Rarely is one person capable of performing all these duties. Large software applications operate the same way. Different procedures perform different tasks, and the whole would not function without the proper operation of each of its parts. Communications software is no exception. As the size of the applications grows, the need for a division of labor becomes increasingly important.
The Internet model is the model used to support all activities on the Internet. Even though the OSI model is not the actual model used to support the Internet, its understanding is necessary as many networks and products often refer to the OSI model for definition. Logical and Physical Connections To avoid future confusion, you must know the difference between a logical connection and a physical connection.
Note that the only physical connection in a network is at the physical or interface layer. All other connections between peer layers are logical connections and exist in the software only. Note how a data packet grows with additional information at each layer. This is called encapsulation. Note further how the router only examines the data packet up to the network or IP layer.
We will return to this encapsulation numerous times in later chapters. Quick Quiz 1. Identify each of the different forms of network connections and list an example of each. Show how a web browser request message originates at the application layer of one computer and proceeds down through the layers, across the network, and up through the layers of the receiving machine. See Figure Discussion Topics 1.
Ask each student how they have used a network today. Discuss an example of a business that incorporates layers of management and show how the work progresses through the layers. Are there any network connections that have not been addressed in the chapter? What are their applications? Are there any other examples in business where one particular technology or method has won out over the competition?
What were the reasons that lead to this particular technology winning? Teaching Tips 1. Be sure to emphasize that each of the terms introduced in the Language of Computer Networks section will be discussed in detail in future chapters. Emphasize that telecommunications is the study of voice systems but that the distinction between data and voice is growing smaller each day. Emphasize the important reasons for using an architectural model: compatibility, encapsulation, separation of work responsibilities, and a good pedagogical tool for learning networks.
Solutions to Review Questions 1. What is the definition of: a.
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Computer network: interconnection of computers and computing equipment using either wires or radio waves over small or large geographic areas. Data communications: transfer of digital or analog data using digital or analog signals. Telecommunications: study of telephones and the systems that transmit telephone signals.
Local area network: networks small in geographic size spanning a room, a building, or a campus. Personal area network: a network of a few meters, interconnecting wireless devices such as PDAs, laptops, and other devices. Metropolitan area network: a network covering a metropolitan area and offers high speed connections between businesses Wide area network: large networks encompassing parts of states, multiple states, countries, and the world.
Network management: design, installation, and support of a network and its hardware and software.comcitusa.ml
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Convergence: coming together of two areas of technology or two companies. What is the relationship between a sub-network and a node? A sub-network is composed of nodes and communication links. What kind of applications might use a computer terminal to mainframe computer connection?
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Errors, Error Detection, and Error Control. Local Area Networks: Part 1. Local Area Networks: Part 2. The Internet. Voice and Data Delivery Networks. Network Security.
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