Local Invasion and Spread of Cancer


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A key feature that distinguishes cancer cells from all other cells is the capability to spread throughout the body by two related mechanisms: invasion and metastasis. Invasion refers to the direct extension and penetration by cancer cells into neighbouring tissues.

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How cancers grow

The proliferation of transformed cells and the progressive increase in tumour size eventually leads to a breach in the barriers between tissues, leading to tumour extension into adjacent tissue. Local invasion is also the first stage in the process that leads to the development of secondary tumours or metastases. Metastasis, from the Greek methistanai, meaning to move to another place, describes the ability of cancer cells to penetrate into lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through these systems and invade normal tissues elsewhere in the body.

This process proceeds in an orderly and predictable manner, sometimes termed the 'metastatic cascade'.

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The ability of cancer cells to migrate from a primary site of disease is attributed to the mutation of genes that regulate the production of proteins that normally tether cells to their surrounding tissues. Decreased synthesis by cancer cells of a number of substances that bind them to neighbouring cells, together with the abnormal synthesis of enzymes capable of degrading the bonds between cells and tissues, allow cancer cells to escape the primary tumour site.

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Angiogenesis has a role in tumour growth, invasiveness and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF. VEGF is a cytokine which exerts its effects on vascular endothelial cells promoting the formation of new blood vessels and is critical to both normal and tumour angiogenesis: 26, 34 VEGF is over-expressed in a variety of solid tumours and certain hematologic malignancies. VEGF action involves: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. Gaddikeri S. A rare case of atypical skull base meningioma with perineural spread.


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Cancer: growth & spread

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Circulating Tumor Cells in the Parallel Invasion Model Supporting Early Metastasis

Tag: cases , cases. Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads. Cases and figures. Case 3: along the infra-orbital nerve Case 3: along the infra-orbital nerve.


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