GRENADES AND PYROTECHNIC SIGNALS


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The term "stick grenade" commonly refers to the German Stielhandgranate style stick grenade introduced in and developed throughout World War I. A friction igniter was used; this method was uncommon in other countries but widely used for German grenades. Grenades are typically round-shaped with a "pineapple" or "baseball"-style design, or an explosive charge on a handle which is referred to as a "stick grenade". The WWI and WWII era "stick grenade" was often used in trench and built-up urban and small scale warfare by the Central Powers and Nazi Germany , while the Triple Entente and Allied powers typically used some improvised earlier grenades or round-shaped fragmentation grenades.

The word "grenade" is likely derived from Old French pomegranate [2] and influenced by Spanish granada , as the bomb is reminiscent of the many-seeded fruit, together with its size and shape. Its first use in English dates from the s. The use of Greek fire spread to Muslim armies in the Near East , from where it reached China by the 10th century. In , a military book Wujing Zongyao "Compilation of Military Classics" described various gunpowder recipes in which one can find, according to Joseph Needham , the prototype of the modern hand grenade.

The manuscript stated that Needham's modified Wade-Giles spelling :. If ten of these shells are fired successfully into the enemy camp, the whole place will be set ablaze The first cast iron bombshells and grenades appeared in Europe in Many of the grenades retained their original black powder loads and igniters.

Most probably the grenades were intentionally dumped in the moat of the bastion prior to The word "grenade" originated during the events surrounding the Glorious Revolution in , where cricket ball-sized iron spheres packed with gunpowder and fitted with slow-burning wicks were first used against the Jacobites in the battles of Killiecrankie and Glen Shiel.

Grenades were also used during the Golden Age of Piracy : pirate Captain Thompson used "vast numbers of powder flasks, grenade shells, and stinkpots" to defeat two pirate-hunters sent by the Governor of Jamaica in Improvised grenades were increasingly used from the midth century, being especially useful in trench warfare. In a letter to his sister, Colonel Hugh Robert Hibbert described an improvised grenade that was employed by British troops during the Crimean War — : [13].

We have a new invention to annoy our friends in their pits. You may imagine their rage at seeing a soda water bottle come tumbling into a hole full of men with a little fuse burning away as proud as a real shell exploding and burying itself into soft parts of the flesh. In the American Civil War , both sides used hand grenades equipped with a plunger that detonated the device on impact.

The Union relied on experimental Ketchum Grenades , which had a tail to ensure that the nose would strike the target and start the fuze. The Confederacy used spherical hand grenades that weighed about six pounds, sometimes with a paper fuze. They also used 'Rains' and 'Adams' grenades, which were similar to the Ketchum in appearance and mechanism. Improvised hand grenades were also used to great effect by the Russian defenders of Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War. The lack of an effective hand grenade, coupled with their danger to the user and their lack of utility meant that they were regarded as increasingly obsolete pieces of military equipment.

In , the British War Office announced that hand grenades were obsolete and had no place in modern warfare. Within two years, following the success of improvised grenades in the trench warfare conditions of the Russo-Japanese War, and reports from General Sir Aylmer Haldane , a British observer of the conflict, a reassessment was quickly made and the Board of Ordnance was instructed to develop a practical hand grenade.

Marten Hale, better known for patenting the Hales rifle grenade , developed a modern hand grenade in but was unsuccessful in persuading the British Army to adopt the weapon until Hale's chief competitor was Nils Waltersen Aasen , who invented his design in in Norway, receiving a patent for it in England. Aasen began his experiments with developing a grenade while serving as a sergeant in the Oscarsborg Fortress. Aasen formed the Aasenske Granatkompani in Denmark, which before the First World War produced and exported hand grenades in large numbers across Europe.

He had success in marketing his weapon to the French and was appointed as a Knight of the French Legion in for the invention. The Royal Laboratory developed the No. It contained explosive material with an iron fragmentation band, with an impact fuze , detonating when the top of the grenade hit the ground.

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Early in World War I , combatant nations only had small grenades, similar to Hales' and Aasen's design. The Italian Besozzi grenade had a five-second fuze with a match-tip that was ignited by striking on a ring on the soldier's hand. Improvised grenades were replaced when manufactured versions became available. The first modern fragmentation grenade was the Mills bomb , which became available to British front-line troops in William Mills , a hand grenade designer from Sunderland , patented, developed and manufactured the "Mills bomb" at the Mills Munition Factory in Birmingham , England in , designating it the No.

It was described as the first "safe grenade". They were explosive-filled steel canisters with a triggering pin and a distinctive deeply notched exterior surface.

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This segmentation was thought to aid fragmentation and increase the grenade's deadliness, but later research showed that it did not improve fragmentation. Improved fragmentation designs were later made with the notches on the inside, but at that time they would have been too expensive to produce. The external segmentation of the original Mills bomb was retained, as it provided a positive grip surface. This basic "pin-and-pineapple" design is still used in some modern grenades.

The Mills bomb underwent numerous modifications. The No. This concept evolved further with the No. The final variation of the Mills bomb, the No. By , the No. The Mills had a grooved cast iron "pineapple" with a central striker held by a close hand lever and secured with a pin. A competent thrower could manage 15 metres 49 feet with reasonable accuracy, but the grenade could throw lethal fragments farther than this; after throwing, the user had to take cover immediately.

The British Home Guard was instructed that the throwing range of the No. Approximately 75,, grenades were manufactured during World War I , used in the war and remaining in use through to the Second World War. At first, the grenade was fitted with a seven-second fuze, but during combat in the Battle of France in , this delay proved too long, giving defenders time to escape the explosion or to throw the grenade back, so the delay was reduced to four seconds.

The F1 grenade was first produced in limited quantities by France in May This new weapon had improvements from the experience of the first months of the war: the shape was more modern, with an external groove pattern for better grip and easier fragmentation. The second expectation proved deceptive, as the explosion in practice gave no more than 10 fragments although the pattern was designed to split into all the 38 drawn divisions.

The design proved to be very functional, especially due to its stability compared to other grenades of the same period. The F1 was used by many foreign armies from to Stick grenades have a long handle attached to the grenade proper, providing leverage for longer throwing distance, at the cost of additional weight. The term "stick grenade" commonly refers to the German Stielhandgranate introduced in and developed throughout World War I.

Grenades & Pyrotechnic Signals (1969) FM 23 30

A pull cord ran down the hollow handle from the detonator within the explosive head, terminating in a porcelain ball held in place by a detachable base closing cap. To use the grenade, the base cap was unscrewed, permitting the ball and cord to fall out. Pulling the cord dragged a roughened steel rod through the igniter, causing it to spark and start the five-second fuze burning. This simple design popularly known as the "potato masher" continued to evolve throughout the First and Second World Wars, with the Model 24 grenade becoming one of the most easily recognized of all German small arms.

One model, the No. It was produced in vast numbers; by August well over 6,, had been manufactured. The United States developed the Mk 2 hand grenade before the war, nicknamed the "pineapple" for its grooved surface. This weapon was widely used by American G. After the Second World War Britain adopted grenades that contained segmented coiled wire in smooth metal casings.


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Despite this, the Mills bomb remained the standard grenade of the British Armed Forces and was manufactured in the UK until , when it was replaced by the L2 series. Fragmentation grenades are common in armies. They are weapons that are designed to disperse lethal fragments on detonation. The body is generally made of a hard synthetic material or steel, which will provide some fragmentation as shards and splinters, though in modern grenades a pre-formed fragmentation matrix is often used.

Most AP grenades are designed to detonate either after a time delay or on impact. When the word grenade is used without specification, and context does not suggest otherwise, it is generally assumed to refer to a fragmentation grenade. Fragmentation grenades can be divided into two main types, defensive and offensive, where the former are designed to be used from a position of cover, e.


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  4. The Mills bombs and the Soviet F1 are examples of defensive grenades. The offensive or concussion high explosive grenade is an anti-personnel device that is designed to damage, daze or otherwise stun its target with its explosive power. Compared to fragmentation grenades, the explosive filler is usually of a greater weight and volume, and the case is much thinner — the US MK3A2 concussion grenade, for example, has a body of fiber similar to the packing container for the fragmentation grenade. These grenades are usually classed as offensive weapons because the small effective casualty radius is much less than the distance it can be thrown.

    The concussion effect, rather than any expelled fragments, is the effective killer. In the case of the US Mk3A2, the casualty radius is published as 2 meters 6—7 feet in open areas, but fragments and bits of fuze may be projected as far as meters from the detonation point. They have also been used as depth charges underwater explosives around boats and underwater targets; some like the US Mk 40 concussion grenade are designed for use against enemy divers and frogmen. Underwater explosions kill or otherwise incapacitate the target by creating a lethal shock wave underwater.

    Some blast grenades with cylindrical bodies can be converted into fragmentation grenades by coupling with a separate factory-made payload of fragments wrapped around the outside: a "fragmentation sleeve jacket ", as shown in the WW2 " Splittering " sleeves for the stick grenade and M39 "egg hand grenade".


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    A range of hand-thrown grenades have been designed for use against heavy armored vehicles. An early and unreliable example was the British Sticky bomb of , which was too short-ranged to use effectively. Due to improvements in modern tank armor, anti-tank hand grenades have become almost obsolete. However, they were used with limited success against lightly-armored Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected MRAP vehicles designed for protection only against improvised explosive devices in the Iraqi insurgency in the early s.

    A stun grenade, also known as a flash grenade or flashbang , is a non-lethal weapon. The first devices like this were created in the s at the order of the British Special Air Service as an incapacitant. It is designed to produce a blinding flash of light and loud noise without causing permanent injury.

    The flash produced momentarily activates all light sensitive cells in the eye , making vision impossible for approximately five seconds, until the eye restores itself to its normal, unstimulated state. The loud blast causes temporary loss of hearing, and also disturbs the fluid in the ear , causing loss of balance. These grenades are designed to temporarily neutralize the combat effectiveness of enemies by disorienting their senses. The body is a tube with holes along the sides that emit the light and sound of the explosion. The explosion does not cause shrapnel injury, but can still burn.

    The concussive blast of the detonation can injure and the heat created can ignite flammable materials such as fuel. The fires that occurred during the Iranian Embassy Siege in London were caused by stun grenades. The filler consists of about 4. Sting grenades, also known as stingball or sting ball grenades, [23] are stun grenades based on the design of the fragmentation grenade. Instead of using a metal casing to produce shrapnel, they are made from hard rubber and are filled with around rubber balls. On detonation, the rubber balls, and shrapnel from the rubber casing explode outward in all directions as a form of less-lethal shrapnel.

    These projectiles may ricochet. Some types have an additional payload of CS gas. Sting grenades do not reliably incapacitate people, so they can be dangerous to use against armed subjects. Sting grenades are sometimes called "stinger grenades", which is a genericized trademark as "Stinger" is trademarked by Defense Technology for its line of sting grenades. Chemical and gas grenades burn or release a gas, and do not explode. Smoke grenades are used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, and to create a smoke-screen for concealment.

    The body is a sheet-steel cylinder with emission holes in the top and bottom. These allow the smoke to be released when the grenade is ignited. There are two main types, one producing coloured smoke for signaling, and the other is used for screening smoke. In coloured smoke grenades, the filler consists of to grams 8. HC smoke contains hydrochloric acid and is harmful to breathe. These grenades can become hot enough to scald or burn unprotected skin, particularly the phosphorus type grenades.

    Tear gas grenades are similar to smoke grenades in shape and operation. In tear gas grenades, the filler is generally 80 to grams 2. This causes extreme irritation to the eyes and, if inhaled, to the nose and throat. They were used in the Waco Siege. Occasionally CR gas is used instead of CS. Incendiary grenades or thermite grenades produce intense heat by means of a chemical reaction. Seventh-century " Greek fire " first used by the Byzantine Empire , which could be lit and thrown in breakable pottery, could be considered the earliest form of incendiary grenade.

    The body of modern incendiary grenades is practically the same as that of a smoke grenade. The chemical reaction that produces the heat is called a thermite reaction. In this reaction, powdered aluminium metal and iron oxide react to produce a stream of molten iron and aluminium oxide. This makes incendiary grenades useful for destroying weapons caches, artillery, and vehicles. The thermite burns without an external oxygen source, allowing it to burn underwater. Thermite incendiary grenades are not intended to be thrown and generally have a shorter delay fuze than other grenades e.

    White phosphorus can be used as an incendiary agent. Thermite and white phosphorus cause some of the worst and most painful burn injuries because they burn extremely quickly at a high temperature. In addition, white phosphorus is very poisonous: a dose of 50— milligrams is lethal to the average human. The Molotov cocktail is an improvised incendiary grenade made with a glass bottle typically filled with gasoline petrol , although sometimes another flammable liquid or mixture is used. The Molotov cocktail is ignited by a burning strip of cloth or a rag stuffed in the bottle's orifice when it shatters against its target which sets a small area on fire.

    The Molotov cocktail received its name during the Soviet invasion of Finland in the Winter War by Finnish troops after the former Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov , whom they deemed responsible for the war. A similar weapon was used earlier in the decade by Franco's troops during the Spanish Civil War. Real events as told by a Police Even though the Anglo-Boer War of ended more than years ago, no extensive study on the sites of remembrance of this war that covers the country as a whole and is based on methodological research has thus far been published.

    This book is aimed at filling that void. This is a study of commemorative sites with a difference Steve Joubert had always wanted to be a pilot and the only way he could afford to do so, was to join the South African Air Force in the late 's.

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    This is the concise story of the first ten years of service from to of the Buccaneer aircraft of 24 Squadron including all the tragic aircraft losses during this period, the Tip-to-Top race, sinking of the Wafra, Operation RSA and the beginning of the Hanto bomb project. For decades these missions have been kept secret. In order to outsmart the terrorist intelligence network, he reverted to a pseudo warfare roll, locating and attacking terrorist in After bitter debate, South Africa, a dominion of the British Empire at the time, declared war on Germany five days after the invasion of Poland in September He demobbed as major, qualified in London as These memoirs are a year window into the life of someone who patrolled with Marine Recon in the jungles of Vietnam, jumped into action with the Rhodesian Light Infantry's Fire Force, infiltrated guerrilla groups on counterinsurgency operations with the Selous Scouts and later waded through the war in Beirut.

    It's not just a war story - though there are stories In this explosive book, investigative journalist Pieter-Louis African Aviation Series No. Until now little has been known about the Rhodesian contribution to the history of the SAS. SAS Rhodesia provides a comprehensive account of the origins and history of this famous Special Forces unit, as told This is the story of one of the world's most effective Special Forces units told by the men who served in it.

    Breaking with conventional military thinking, the South African Police created Koevoet by refining the concept of the counter-insurgency group pioneered in Rhodesia during the Bush War in order to provide up-to-date intelligence about an elusive enemy. Now at The terrorist was caught between our two Casspirs. A long burst erupted and the insurgent was blown to hell and Ranged against two powerful communist terrorist armies, the small, under-equipped army of Rhodesia defied all military convention by not only resisting the onslaught, but taking the fight to the very heart of the ZIPRA and ZANLA terrorist machines.

    The efforts of the Rhodesian army and air force shocked the world; how could such a small force of men repel the At the height of the cold war, the small landlocked country of Rhodesia found herself ranged against two powerful communist terrorist armies who, in turn, were backed by Soviet Russia and China. The strategic aim of both backers was Al Venter's latest book on South Africa's year Border War along the Angolan frontier offers a host of new perspectives.

    These include details about units like the South African Air Force 44 Squadron which converted Dakota aircraft into flying gun platforms similar to those used in America's war in South-East Asia. He also has American nuclear specialist David Albright Sunday, September 22, Default Title - R 0. Add to Wishlist Your wishlist has been temporarily saved. Out Of Stock! We will notify you when this product becomes available. Availability Date:.

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