Parasite species were originally described primarily on the basis of host occurrence, site of infection, type of disease and, occasionally, differences in oocyst morphometrics. Epidemiological and experimental cross-transmission studies, however, suggested that different parasite species were specific for individual vertebrate classes rather than individual host species.
More recently, molecular characterization studies conducted on clinical isolates have identified a range of genotypes and subgenotypes that vary in their specificity for mammals; some being highly specific for individual host species e. Cryptosporidium species. Vertebrate hosts. Site of infection.
Oocyst size. Site of infection: Most parasite species infect the small intestines of their hosts mammals whereas others infect the respiratory tract birds or stomach reptiles. The parasites are located within parasitophorous vacuoles covered by host microvillous membranes intracellular but extracytoplasmic location.
They undergo several cycles of asexual merogonous development before gamonts are formed. After fertilization, the oocysts mature in the gut and are usually infective as soon as they are excreted from the host. Pathogenesis: Infections vary markedly in their presentation ranging from asymptomatic to mild acute to severe chronic disease. Endogenous intestinal stages may cause microvillus destruction, villus atrophy, impaired glucose and electrolyte transport, impaired carbohydrate and protein digestion manifesting in malabsorptive and maldigestive disease.https://pomanfiatradbo.ga
Cryptosporidium: From Molecules to Disease - 1st Edition
Most clinical infections in immunocompetent individuals involve transient acute disease characterized by profuse watery foul-smelling diarrhoea or acute respiratory signs. Coccidiosis among malnourished children in Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Opportunistic parasites among immunosuppressed children in Minia District, Egypt.
Korean J Parasitol. Diarrhea associated with Cryptosporidium parvum among young children of the Nile River delta in Egypt.
J Trop Pediatr. Enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in children in Fayoum, Egypt. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoan infections with Cryptosporidium , Giardia , Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon. Extended outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a pediatric hospital, China. First survey of Cryptosporidium , Giardia and Enterocytozoon in diarrhoeic children from Wuhan, China.
Squire SA, Ryan U. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Africa: current and future challenges. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in human patients in Cairo, Egypt. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in children in Oyo State, Nigeria: implications for infection sources. Cryptosporidium genotypes in children and calves living at the wildlife or livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.
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Onderstepoort J Vet Res. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Detection of Cryptosporidium amongst diarrhoeic and asymptomatic children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. Identification of rare and novel Cryptosporidium GP60 subtypes in human isolates from Jordan. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in Yemen. Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait.
Cryptosporidiosis in Kuwaiti children: association of clinical characteristics with Cryptosporidium species and subtypes. J Med Microbiol. Identification of polymorphic genes for use in assemblage B genotyping assays through comparative genomics of multiple assemblage B Giardia duodenalis isolates.
Mol Biochem Parasitol. Download references. The authors would like to thank Matthew H. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article. DN and LX conceived and designed the study. DN and NA collected the specimens. DN performed the experiments. DN and LX analyzed the data and prepared the manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Lihua Xiao. Informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians prior to specimen collection. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Table S1. Specimens from kindergarten-age children in Egypt that were positive for Giardia duodenalis assemblage B at the tpi , gdh and bg loci. DOCX 16 kb. Reprints and Permissions. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.
If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Please note that comments may be removed without notice if they are flagged by another user or do not comply with our community guidelines. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background The transmission of Cryptosporidium spp.
Methods In the present study, fecal specimens were collected from children eight years old and younger in three provinces El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia and Damietta during March to April Results The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. Conclusions Data from this study are useful in our understanding of the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. Background Diarrhea is a worldwide public health issue, responsible for 2.
Full size image. Results Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. Table 1 Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. Table 2 Characteristics of eight Cryptosporidium- positive children Full size table. Table 3 Distribution of G. Table 4 Distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages by locality Full size table.
Table 5 Multilocus sequence types of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in children, Egypt Full size table. Discussion In the present study, the overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. Conclusions Giardiasis is apparently common, and cryptosporidiosis remains to be a problem in kindergarten age children in Egypt. References 1. Article Google Scholar 2. Article PubMed Google Scholar 4. Article PubMed Google Scholar 5. Article Google Scholar 8. PubMed Google Scholar Article PubMed Google Scholar Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Matthew H. Availability of data and materials The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article.
Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians prior to specimen collection. Consent for publication Not applicable.
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Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Hassanain , Dalia A. Hamza , Raafat M. Shaapan and Sara H. Abstract: Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium species are important zoonotic protozoan parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of most vertebrate animals and man. Cryptosporidiosis infection is responsible for numerous outbreaks of diarrheal disease worldwide. This study was planned for prevalence and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Results: An overall Cryptosporidium spp.
The highest prevalence On the other hand, a lower prevalence The prevalence in relation to fecal consistency was higher in diarrheic The PCR analysis of 7 and 6 MZN stain positive calves and children fecal samples, respectively, revealed the expected positive bands at bp for all 6 tested children fecal samples and for only 3 calve fecal samples, while the other 4 were negative PCR for Cryptosporidium spp.
Conclusion: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp.
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