Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)

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While the line taken by the Marx circle on tax is in general remarkably consistent, across some 50 years — importantly, notwithstanding its piecemeal assembly — there is undoubtedly a caesura in the case of Marx himself in the period — This, after all, is first very much the same period in which Marx and Wolff are activist tax-campaigners, and in which progressive tax and other tax reforms are first being previewed, and then formally proposed in the Manifesto. Well beyond the —50 timeframe, there is also no shortage of support for progressive taxation.

This was certainly not the situation around the middle of the nineteenth century when Marx and Engels started to formulate their views on direct taxes — most obviously income tax — and indirect taxes. Income tax was first legitimised by war. In the UK, it was introduced in , abolished in , reintroduced a year later and then abandoned in at the end of the Napoleonic wars before being brought back by Robert Peel in In Prussia, an income tax existed just briefly from to , not re-emerging until As Marx frequently discusses in the s and s, superseding predominant, regressive and much less visible indirect taxes with direct taxes was very much a live issue.

Indirect taxes are frequently identified as an evil. Restrictions on inheritance are one of the founding principles of the communism put forward by Engels and Marx in the late s, as a way of transforming private property into social property, but the scale of restriction varies, and the restriction framing is not always tax-based. If Henry George declares land-monopolisation to be the sole cause of poverty and misery, he naturally finds the remedy in the resumption of the land by society at large.

Now, the Socialists of the school of Marx, too, demand the resumption, by society, of the land, and not only of the land but of all other means of production likewise.

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But … what is to be done with the land? Modern Socialists, as represented by Marx, demand that it should be held and worked in common and for common account, and the same with all other means of social production, mines, railways, factories, etc. What the Socialists demand, implies a total revolution of the whole system of social production; what Henry George demands, leaves the present mode of social production untouched.

James Tobin proposed what became his eponymous potential tax on currency transactions only in , but the idea of a more generic financial-transactions tax is of far greater longevity. An ad valorem stamp duty on the transfer of shares was introduced in in the UK, with stamp duty on securities transfers and contract notes coming into effect in Germany in Some of the budgetary comment is rather mechanically descriptive — thus, the varying rates of English tax on tea and sugar imposed by Gladstone — but a common and more analytical Marx preoccupation is national debt, how it has arisen, and the levers which affect it such as the increase or reduction of direct and indirect taxes, and their interplay.

Marx, writing in on The Bill on the Compulsory Loan and its Motivation , seems to share this prevailing attitude. It is in the area of principles and preferences that the tax policies of Marx and Engels are very much of contemporary relevance. The geographic backdrop for the tax campaigning is Prussia, accounting in for half the population of the German state, as it would be constituted in Nobles, moreover, were exempt from the Land Tax.

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Prussian wages in the s bottomed-out in but, as Marx points out in Wage Labour and Capital , did not then rise in tandem with sharply rallying cereals and meat prices in the winter of and on into The campaign was very much intended to involve those most affected by the inequitable tax regime, and thus the rural poor. Marx also sought to attract and inspire broad-based social and political support. The campaign is frequently dismissed as ineffective and insignificant, a mere footnote to the German Revolutions. There are certainly reports of tax boycotts outside the Rhineland — in Saxony and Silesia, in particular — but it is perhaps no coincidence that the greatest number of tax boycotts is reported in the heartland of the NRZ , the Rhineland.

In Cologne itself, 80 and in other garrison fortress towns, the strong military presence precluded tax boycotts. In many individual towns and in the less easily policed countryside, however, there were numerous instances of taxes not being collected, on single days, in the second half of November Ultimately, the tax-boycott campaign was not sustainable for two reasons — the inability of the PNA to maintain a united front, and the loyalty of the Prussian standing army. On balance, it is easy to designate the performance of the PNA as half-hearted throughout the tax-refusal campaign.

The authorities were clearly alarmed by the vote and the calls not to pay taxes. The alarm, though, soon dissipated.

PNA deputies, having at least provided a collective figurehead in mid-November , albeit offering no effective resistance to military challenges, gradually dispersed to their constituencies until there was only a rump parliament left in Brandenburg to be easily dissolved on 5 December. Secondly, the Prussian Ministry was able to count on the continuing loyalty of the standing Prussian army. Around the country, some militiamen refused to don uniform; in the most flagrant incident, in Erfurt in Saxony, on 24 November, soldiers used artillery to restore control with seven rebelling militiamen being summarily executed.

Arguably, Marx and the NRZ did test the limits of what a democratic newspaper could effectively and realistically achieve in Prussian newspapers were frequently suppressed in and , and he was ultimately expelled from Prussia in May Marx, the initial inspiration behind No More Taxes!!!

Most importantly of all, perhaps, Marx did not just talk about boycotting taxes. The No More Taxes!!! Marx was far more obviously thinker than fighter. The founding of the First International, the IWMA , in does offer renewed scope for practical activism for Marx, but this too founders through his geographic remoteness he attended only one European Congress, in , and disputes involving personalities and the politics.

But Sperber does proclaim the activist passion of the No More Taxes!!! Wolff brings three distinctive dimensions to the tax campaigning of the Marx inner circle. First, while Marx does spearhead in No More Taxes!!! Wolff, in contrast, details the precise financial incidence of his target, the Class Tax. Where Marx one-sidedly champions the rural poor, Wolff presents the issue of tax as one of class antagonism, the mechanism whereby the peasant is exploited by the Junker. Mr Count von Keller has, to be fair, his pretty salary, but when a count has three children, it goes without saying that the poor, starving rabble must divvy up Thalers a year for the upbringing of the countly children.

The young Karl Marx's five years at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium in Trier —35 were uneventful and not strikingly distinguished. Only hindsight can read more into the seventeen-year-old's essay 'Considerations of a young man on choosing his career' than the adolescent's idealist desire to serve humanity: 'If he is working only for himself, he can become a famous scholar, a sage, a distinguished writer, but never a complete, a truly great, man.

Intellectually, the major influences in his school years appear to have come from his father and his future father-in-law, privy councillor geheimer Regierungsrat Johann Ludwig von Westphalen , son of an official of the duke of Brunswick , who was distinguished in the Seven Years War, ennobled, and married into the Wishart family, kin to the earls and later dukes of Argyll , a connection which Mrs Marx did nothing to conceal during her years in England.

Westphalen , who served, in turn, the Guelphs , the French kingdom of Westphalia, and Prussia, shared his enthusiasm for the Greek poets and Shakespeare with the young Marx , and, more surprisingly, introduced him to Saint-Simon ; his ideas were clearly more advanced than those of his eldest son, who was to become Prussian minister of the interior in the s. His daughter Jenny , four years older than Karl , was the beauty of Trier, and was still remembered in the town as such even in the early s, as Marx noted with satisfaction when he revisited his birthplace in That a man of this background and standing should have consented to the marriage of his daughter to a young, even if converted, Jew without visible prospects is convincing evidence that, even as a schoolboy, he must have deeply impressed at least one good judge.

That the brilliant, sarcastic, darkly handsome youth also deeply impressed both contemporaries and seniors became clear at the universities in Bonn —6 and especially Berlin —41 , where Marx gradually shifted from his original subject of law to philosophy, though also tempted by Romantic poetry, for which his surviving verses show no great aptitude. The student was father to the man.

A number of what proved to be Marx's permanent characteristics emerged during his university years, finally completed by a doctoral dissertation, 'Die Differenz der Demokritischen und Epikurischen Naturphilosophie' 'The difference between Democritus' and Epicurus' philosophy of nature' , at the philosophical faculty of Jena April : a tendency to indulge in Herculean bouts of overwork at the expense of his health ; an inability to finish his projects, except under extreme pressure; and—not least—a cavalier attitude to the problems of earning a living and to the relation between income and expenditure.

These darkened his relations with his father, a conflict which can be followed in a moving exchange of letters that ended with Heinrich Marx's premature death in , after which relations with Marx's mother also deteriorated.

Perhaps the father, though complaining about Karl's extravagant debts, would have been more tolerant of the nineteen-year-old's impassioned but ill-defined struggles to reunite art, science, and philosophy single-handed had he not, by his engagement to the daughter of an established Trier family, undertaken commitments, by the standards of contemporary reason and convention, which he showed no sign of recognizing. Indeed, for the rest of his life Marx was never to succeed by his own efforts in solving his economic problems, or acquiring any regular or predictable income.

There was no prospect of an academic career for a brilliant but philosophically though by no means yet socially subversive young intellectual inclined to activism. However, he had made a sufficiently strong impression to be asked to contribute to a new journal, the Rheinische Zeitung , financed by a group of wealthy Cologne men in business and the professions and representing the moderate but loyal liberalism of the non-clerical Rhineland bourgeoisie.

After six months and a number of articles, which were almost his first excursions into real politics and his first into economic questions, he became its editorial director and remained so until the paper was closed down by the censor in early , though evidently without hard feelings, for shortly after he resigned from the editorship the Prussian government appears to have offered him a post as editor in the state service.

Indeed his posture as editor of the Rheinische Zeitung had been militant but politically moderate. It was not, he felt, based on serious thought. Proud, abrasive, and confident of his gifts, he had begun to make a name. Nevertheless, it was clear that no serious opposition writing would be tolerated in Germany. He surrendered his Prussian citizenship in December , a fact which was later used to disqualify his application for naturalization in Britain on the grounds that he had 'behaved disloyally to his King' Collected Works , In Paris he set up his first married household—he had married on 12 June —and had his first child, Jenny Caroline — Here also the household was joined by its lifelong member Helene Lenchen Demuth , a young servant of the Westphalen family who was transferred, in a somewhat feudal manner, from Trier to Jenny Marx by her mother.

Under Prussian pressure Marx was expelled from Paris by the French government in January and moved to Brussels, which remained his base of operations until the revolutions. Two further children were born in Brussels, Jenny Laura — —all his daughters were named Jenny , after his wife—and the short-lived Henry Edgar , who died in Soho — The Karl Marx we know was born in the months between his marriage and his expulsion from Paris.

In Paris he found himself in the capital of both revolution and socialism, and in the midst of an international community of the political avant-garde, most of whom were soon to become victims of his critique— Bakunin , Proudhon , Ruge and the German emigration, Leroux , Louis Blanc , and the other French socialists, but not the sceptical poet and temporary communist sympathizer Heinrich Heine , for whom, all his life, Marx retained 'a sincere affection' Prawer , He was already known as both the ablest and least tolerant of the revolutionary intellectuals. The two young men found they had converged on the same point by different routes: the one via politics and the French Revolution, the other via the experience of Britain's industrial revolution in his family's Manchester cotton business.

By the late summer of , when Engels spent ten days in Paris with Marx on his way back from Manchester, the two young men found themselves 'in agreement in all theoretical areas' and about to begin their lifelong co-operation. The partnership with Engels , never broken on either side, was so central to the remainder of Marx's life that a brief comment on it is relevant. For Marx , Engels was to be the permanent intellectual collaborator and partner, the ever reliable source of information, notably about the actual operations of capitalist industry, the constant, unconditional if not uncritical backer, and the fount of intellectual, and especially material, support.

Without Engels he could not have survived his years in Britain. For Engels , Marx , in his own graveside words, was 'the greatest living thinker', the Darwin of the law of human historical evolution, the pathbreaker for humanity's future, a genius to whom he, a mere man of talent and intelligence, was justified in devoting his mind and money—even at the cost of continuing in the hated family cotton business to provide him with an income. With and without Engels , Marx now launched himself into a series of writings in which he tried to elaborate his new theory, and which form the basis of what later came to be called Marxism—a term from which he took his distance when it came into use at the end of his life.

However, although he actually received in a publisher's advance for a two-volume critique of politics and national economy, his major work—or that part of it which was actually completed under the title Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen Oekonomie —was not published until As Ruge had observed: 'He never finishes anything; he is always breaking off, and then plunges again into an infinite ocean of books' Blumenberg , Major texts, such as the so-called 'Paris manuscripts' of , the 'Theses on Feuerbach' , and the enormous Die deutsche Ideologie 'German ideology' of —6, written in collaboration with Engels , in which his 'materialist conception of history' was first elaborated, were to be published posthumously between and Of more immediate significance was the conversion of the most important secret German revolutionary fraternity, the League of the Just, renamed the Communist League , with whom both had had increasingly close contacts for some years, to the views of Marx and Engels.

This body, an offshoot of French secret societies of the s, was primarily composed of militant expatriate German craftsmen, but also attracted some young intellectuals, among them the future leaders of Germany's major working-class parties, Ferdinand Lassalle and Wilhelm Liebknecht.

Here he and Engels were commissioned to draw up a manifesto, which he completed—not without a deadline and ultimatum from the league—for publication at the end of February, a nose ahead of the revolutions. It presented communism as the necessary and inevitable product of the historical development of capitalism. As the Communist Manifesto , this irresistible combination of utopian confidence, moral passion, hard-edged analysis, and—not least—a dark literary eloquence was eventually to become perhaps the best-known and certainly the most widely translated pamphlet of the nineteenth century.

Its publication went almost unnoticed. The Communist League and its network remained Marx's main political resource during the ensuing years of revolution. The revolution gave Marx a political role adequate to his talents. Expelled from Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the February revolution in France, he returned to Paris by invitation of the new republican government and prepared for the now certain German revolutions which triumphed in March.

Within weeks, and on a temporary French passport, he was back in Cologne with Engels , who raised most of the money to found the daily Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Democratie , of which Marx was editor-in-chief, assisted—for the paper was run, in Engels's words, 'simply as the dictatorship of Marx '—by Engels and a team of communists. It has been described as 'the best newspaper of that year of revolution' Blumenberg , Certainly it was the most coherent voice of the democratic left, which believed that 'the domination of the bourgeoisie cannot be reached by compromise with the feudal powers', recommended a revolutionary war against Russia, and held that 'German unity, like the German Constitution, can only emerge as the result of a movement in which both the inner conflicts and the war with the East are brought to resolution' Neue Rheinische Zeitung , 7 June Fortunately Marx's pen felt the discipline of the need for daily comment.

Though Marx and his friends did not recognize that the defeat of the revolution was irreversible until , the increasingly radical paper closed down as Marx was expelled from Prussia at twenty-four hours' notice in May The family made its way to Paris by various routes. In France he was, once again, a suspect subversive, offered permission to reside only if he remained far from Paris in southern Brittany. Instead, planning a revived expatriate Neue Rheinische Zeitung , he chose exile in Britain, where he arrived at the end of August, to be joined by his family on 15 September. The next few years were the hardest and most frustrating in Marx's life, although the British Museum Library, to which he obtained access in June , offered some escape from the miseries of politics and everyday troubles.

His political hopes, both general and personal, collapsed. Yet, unlike many other of the refugees crowding into London, he soon accepted that the revolutionary era was at an end.

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In the overheated atmosphere of inquest, rivalry, recrimination, and mutual accusation that tends to follow lost revolutions, the German Workers' League in London broke away from Marx and Engels —never the best of committee men—as did most of the London communists, leaving them politically quite isolated, while in the police succeeded in virtually destroying the Communist League in Germany. It was formally dissolved by Marx in November Politically he was at zero point.

Intellectually few could even read him, for attempts to publish his writings in came to little, as did his hopes, excessively optimistic as usual, to complete his economic work. The enormous preparatory manuscripts of —8 became influential after their publication under the title Grundrisse in — The contrast between his talent, promise, and achievement and his political isolation visibly embittered Marx , and made him even more intolerant, both in public and in private.


At the same time Marx's material situation was catastrophic. With no gift for domestic financial management and living the hand-to-mouth life of the political refugee, without a predictable source of income since , he had been harried by money troubles since the mids, but with the end of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung these became constant and acute. The squalor in which the Marxes —six persons—lived in their two furnished rooms in Soho was vividly described by visiting Prussian police spies, and the daily Dickensian struggle with butchers, bakers, landlords, and pawnbrokers emerges in Marx's correspondence with the ever loyal Engels , on whose financial aid he now relied permanently.

Not surprisingly Jenny Marx's nerves often gave way, as did Karl's hardly equable temper. She bears the brunt of the pressure, and au fond she is right. It should be remembered that Mrs Marx was not only in charge of the household but also acted as her husband's secretary. It may be that those times of what must have been intolerable pressure led to the birth of Helene Demuth's son, Henry Frederick , who according to one interpretation was Marx's child, on 28 June Jenny Marx seems to have been kept in ignorance, thanks to the faithful and notoriously unbourgeois Engels , who tacitly allowed paternity to be attributed to himself until shortly before he died.

We may assume that Marx was not in a position to take responsibility for an illegitimate son. Still, the episode leaves a bad taste in the mouths of Marx's biographers. Befriended later by Marx's daughters, Frederick Demuth , the only member of the Marx family actually to be a class-conscious proletarian a toolmaker and member of the Amalgamated Engineering Union , died in It has been suggested that the authorities of the young USSR, anxious to avoid potentially embarrassing claims from illegitimate descendants of Marx , paid him a substantial sum, probably in the mids, presumably in return for silence about his paternity.

The documentation about Demuth was sufficiently important to be submitted to Stalin himself in , who decided that 'the material should stay buried in the archive' Kapp , Frederick Demuth, 18—19, 26—7. Ironically, the main victim of those years was not Helene Demuth , who continued as the loved and respected friend, member, and housekeeper of the Marx family until her employer's death and is buried in the family grave, but Jenny Marx. In all these struggles [she was to write some twenty years later] we women have the harder part to bear, because it is the pettier one.

A man draws strength from his battles with the world outside, invigorated by the very confrontation with the enemy, be their number legion. We sit at home and darn stockings. That doesn't save us from worry, and the little everyday miseries slowly but surely grind down the will to live.

In the last decade of her life, when Marx's work made less demand on her time, Jenny's life—passionate but not entirely conventional by the standards of Haverstock Hill—turned increasingly round the domestic problems of children and grandchildren. Her daughters, from whom surprisingly few letters to her appear to have survived, talked of her with a sort of amused condescension and made fun of her conscientious reading of Das Kapital.

Not so Karl Marx , who thought the most important thing about what he regarded as the first English publication that did his ideas justice was that he received it in time 'so that my dear wife had the last days of her life still cheered up. You know the passionate interest she took in all such affairs' ibid. Sorge, 15 Dec , If anything Marx's financial problems became worse in the course of the s, although journalism, mainly for the New York Daily Tribune , whose editor, Charles Dana , he had got to know in and for which he acted as London correspondent, provided some fairly regular income.

Some of these articles were written for Marx by Engels , notably those later published as Revolution and Counter-Revolution, or, Germany in , edited by Eleanor Marx Aveling In , when the American Civil War had lost Marx this source of income, he reached the nadir of his financial fortunes.

His wife attempted to sell his books and with recommendations from a Philips cousin Marx actually felt obliged to seek employment as a clerk for the Great Western Railway. He was turned down because of his sensationally illegible handwriting, which has also been the bane of Marxian scholars. In fact the Marxes continued to rely on Engels's extraordinary generosity, as the need arose. The problem of the Marxian finances had been particularly intractable for two reasons: the Marxes felt it essential to maintain the public expenditure of a successful professional household, especially after their move into a middle-class district, and they were spectacularly bad at budgeting.

Hence the surprising combination of what was then a substantial annual expenditure with almost constant and desperate financial embarrassment. Moreover, matters were made even more difficult by the ill health which increasingly racked Marx's powerful body from He suffered annual and increasingly severe liver and gall-bladder attacks. From the early s he developed disabling and Job like boils and abscesses—the famous carbuncles, for which he hoped the bourgeoisie would one day pay.

He also suffered from rheumatic pains and occasional paralysis, and, fairly persistently, from headaches, inflammation of the eyes, neuralgia, and chronic insomnia, not to mention from bronchial and lung problems, which were to be the official cause of his death 'cachexy as a result of consumption'. In his last thirty years he was, for practical purposes, under constant medical attention.

It is possible that some of his medical problems were psychosomatic 'of a nervous nature' , as his doctor suggested on at least one occasion. They were almost certainly aggravated by his diet, smoking, and drinking habits, and quite certainly by the enormous workload he imposed on himself by day and night. Since Marx had established relations with the British Chartists—notably G. Harney , who appears to have been the main British contact for the Communist League , and later Ernest Jones.

However, his contacts with the main body of the post-Chartist labour movement, the trade unions, were probably mediated through old Communist Leaguers among German workers in Britain, who retained their admiration for him, such as the tailor G. Eccarius , who in arranged his participation in a trade union meeting in favour of the north in the American Civil War, presided over by John Bright.

This initiated his relations with leading figures of the British trade union and labour movement such as Robert Applegarth , W. Cremer , and George Odger. The British unions were to provide the crucial organizational backing for the new International Working Men's Association , to the inaugural meeting of which, on 28 September , Marx was invited as a representative of the German workers, and to whose provisional committee he was elected.

Although Marx at this time had few supporters anywhere, sheer intellectual superiority immediately made him the leading figure in this organization. Since, unlike in the Communist League , he was in no position to exercise authority directly, he now also demonstrated a political tact not evident in his earlier career. Composed of representatives of virtually all tendencies on the European left, ranging from moderate trade unionists to anarchist insurrectionaries, the ' International ' was to acquire considerable public prominence, coinciding as it did with a marked growth in labour activity and organization in Europe, which it attempted to inspire and co-ordinate.

While uninterested in revolutionary projects the British unions, engaged in the struggle for electoral reform and union rights, found Marx's insistence on class-based political action congenial and welcomed the International's efforts to prevent the import of strike-breakers from abroad. Marx became the chief draftsman of its documents, beginning with its rules and inaugural address , and indeed was chiefly instrumental in holding its disparate elements together until they broke apart under the strain of the battle between Marx , the champion of state power and politics, and Bakunin , the anti-political anarchist, and in the aftermath of the Paris commune of Most of the British trade unionists abandoned the International after its, or rather Marx's , 'Address on the commune' , better known as The Civil War in France —the third of his remarkable pamphlets on the contemporary history of France.

This document, which profoundly influenced subsequent revolutionaries from Lenin to Mao , abandoned the deliberate moderation of the earlier statements of the International to return to 'the old boldness of speech' Marx to Engels, 4 Dec , Collected Works , That really does one good after a tedious twenty years' idyll in the swamp' ibid. His prominence in the International also attracted attention to his writings.

Volume 1 of Das Kapital was published in , its preface dated from London on 25 July , the only one of Marx's major works which was published in his lifetime its first English translation, edited by Engels and translated by S. Between and , for the only time in his lifetime, new editions of his earlier writings were published: The Eighteenth Brumaire , the Communist Manifesto , and the second and much rewritten edition of Das Kapital On the other hand the breakup of the International in —its relics were dispatched to New York—virtually ended his life as a practising politician.

Although the s left Marx with far more time and without serious financial worries, they also virtually brought to an end his theoretical work. While he continued to read endlessly in a variety of languages—he now learned Russian—after he wrote little, published less, and added hardly anything to the vast but unco-ordinated mass of manuscript written in the s, although he made an attempt to return to the second volume of Das Kapital in —8, which he said he hoped to complete within a year.

Engels's shock at the fragmentary state of the material after his friend's death is comprehensible: he had been given the impression that it was close to completion. Why Marx never concluded his magnum opus has been endlessly discussed since his death, but there is no doubt that with the end of the International something went out of his life. However, he was by this time a personage of some note, or notoriety, in various countries.

Indeed, his unsuccessful application for naturalization in was intended to safeguard himself against action by the authorities in newly united Germany and the Austrian authorities at Karlsbad where, under the watchful eye of the local Bezirkshauptmann , he took the cure with his daughter Eleanor , until a nervous Habsburg government intimated its intention to expel this 'outstanding leader of the democratic-social party' Kisch , 31, 73 if he were to return. He began to attract interviewers. More to the point, in Germany the two labour and socialist parties, both founded by his disciples, merged in on terms which he bitterly denounced in the so-called 'Critique of the Gotha programme' of that year, posthumously published by Engels in Die Neue Zeit , to form what was to become the largest of pre Marxist parties.

More surprisingly, the translation of Das Kapital into Russian gained him immediate and profound influence among Russian intellectuals. The censors of St Petersburg had authorized its publication on the grounds that 'it is possible to state with certainty that very few people in Russia will read it and even fewer will understand it' Figes , While he had been in touch with Russian exiles since the s, his links with Russian intellectuals, in whose country—to cite a British report of —he expected 'a great and not distant crash' Collected Works , His relations also remained close with France, the only other country in which a translation of Das Kapital appeared in Marx's lifetime —5 ; two of his daughters, Jenny and Laura , married Frenchmen—respectively Charles Longuet — and Paul Lafargue — —while a third, Eleanor , was for some years engaged to another, the communard and historian of the Paris commune Hippolyte Prosper Olivier Lissagaray — , and would almost certainly have married him but for a paternal veto.

In Britain, where The Times and some other newspapers were to receive the news of his death from the Paris papers, Marx remained little known and intellectually isolated. Not surprisingly he resented the fact that even his earliest British disciple, founder of the Democratic from Social Democratic Federation , H. Hyndman , initially thought it advisable not to mention his name, on the grounds that the English did not like the word socialism and 'have a dread of being taught by a foreigner' Marx to Hyndman, 2 July , Collected Works , Such contacts as he had earlier, mainly with the radicals of the Fortnightly Review , appear to have been mediated by the small band of positivists E.

Beesly , Frederic Harrison , themselves supporters of the International and among the rare British sympathizers with the Paris commune. A number of writers have left very similar impressions of Marx in his last decade: a 'firm neck' Kisch , 70 on still massive shoulders supported 'the head of a man of intellect and the features of a cultivated Jew' Collected Works ,

Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated) Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)
Collected Works of Karl Marx (Illustrated)

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